2Definition:Any stretch of talk, by one person, before and after which there is silence on the part of that person.
3Example:“Hello”, “not much”, and “utterances may consist of a single word, a single phrase, or a single sentence. It’s not unusual to find utterances that consist of one or more grammatically incomplete sentence-fragments. In short, there is no simple relation of correspondence between utterances and sentences”. The three previous examples present utterances.
4Example:“ pxgotmgt” and “ Schplotzenpflaaaaaaargh!”. These two examples do not present any utterances because this string of sounds is not forming any language.
5A sentenceIs neither a physical event nor a physical object. It is conceived abstractly, a string of words put together by the grammatical rules of a language. It can be thought of as the IDEAL string of words behind various realizations in utterances and inscriptions.
6We need to make a careful distinction between utterances and sentences We need to make a careful distinction between utterances and sentences. Anything written between double quotation marks represents an utterance, e.g. “Help”. Anything italicized represents a sentence, e.g. The cotillions have been struck.A sentence is a grammatically complete string of words expressing a complete thought.
8is that part of the meaning of the utterance of a declarative sentence which describes some state of affairs . Rule : the notion of truth can be used to decide whether two sentences express different propositions . Thus if there is any conceivable set of circumstances in which one sentence is true , while the other is false , we can be sure that they express different propositions.A Proposition
9The notion of truthDo these pairs of sentences share a description of the same state of affairs, or, in other words , do they share a common proposition?1- Harry took out the garbage / Harry took the garbage out John gave Mary a book / Mary was given a book by John. 3-George danced with Ethel / George didn't dance with Ethel Dr Findlay killed Janet / Dr Findlay caused Janet to die.
10True propositions correspond to facts while false propositions don’t correspond to facts . In the present-day world1-is it a fact that there are lions in Africa?yes2-is the proposition that there are lions in Africaa true proposition ?3-is it a fact that the state of Arkansas is uninhibited by human beings ?No
11One can entertain propositions in the mind regardless of whether they are true or false by thinking them , or believing them.But only true propositions can be known .
121- if I say to you (( if Marry came to the party , Phyllis must have been upset )) do I thereby put in your mind the proposition that Mary came to the party , withoutnecessarily indicating whether it is true or not ?yes2- is there something odd about the following sentence ? If so, what ?Pamela considered the fact that her mother was alive and realized that it could not possibly be true.Yes, contradiction
13Propositions involved in the meaning of other types of sentences, not only with the declarative sentences, such as interrogatives and imperative.Example:In saying ((John can go)) a speaker asserts the proposition that John can go.In saying ((can John go?)) he mentions the same proposition but merely questions its truth .We say that corresponding declarative and interrogative (imperative) have the same propositional content .
141- In the following utterances , is any propositions asserted by the speaker ?A- Have you seen my toothbrush ?NoB- Get out of here this minute .C- I'm afraid that I will have to ask you toleave.Yes
152- Would you say that the following sentence pairs have the same propositional content?A-Go away will you ?You will go away .yesB-Pigs might fly .I'm a Dutchman .noC- I am an idiotAm I an idiot ?
16Propositions cannot be said to belong to any particular language , unlike sentences. Sentences in different languages can correspond to the same proposition if the two sentences are perfect translations of each other.
17One may question whether perfect translation between languages is ever possible. many linguists disagree about this and conclude that absolutely perfect translation of the same proposition from one language to another is impossible. However, to simplify matters , perfect translation IS possible in very few cases .
18There is a relationship between a proposition , Sentences and Utterances as it is shown in the diagram blow .
19For example , a single proposition could be expressed by using several different sentences and each of these sentences could be uttered an infinite number of times.
20For one individual person A proposition is an abstraction that can be grasped by the mind of an individual person. so, a proposition is an object of thought. we must not equate propositions with thoughts for these differencebut ,For one individual person
21Unfortunately ,the word thought may sometimes be used in a way which includes the notion of a proposition. For one may say ‘The same thought came into both our heads at the same time.’ In this case, the word thought is being used in a sense quite like a proposition
22Finally ,The relationship between mental processes (e.g. thoughts), abstract semantic entities (e.g. propositions), linguistic entities (e.g. sentences), and actions (e.g. utterances) is problematic and complicated .