Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1: Introduction to Geography Holly Barcus"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to Geography People, Places, and Environment, 6e Carl Dahlman William H. Renwick Chapter 1: Introduction to GeographyHolly BarcusMorehead State University& Joe Naumann - UMSL
2 Conclusion from a healthy world view "The deeper we look into nature the more we recognize that it is full of life, and the more profoundly we know that all life is a secret, and we are all united to all this life."Albert Schweitzer
3 Overview: Chapter 1 The Nature of Geography Evolution of the DisciplineSome Basic Geographic ConceptsGeography’s Themes and StandardsMaps - Cartography
4 GeographyThe study of the interaction of all physical and human phenomena at individual places and of how interactions among places form patterns and organize space.
5 The Nature of Geography Geographers apply the spatial perspective whereas historians apply the time perspectiveFor maximum understanding, the geographer must also be aware of the time perspective and visa versa.
6 Geographic focus Distributions Distances Directions Shapes & forms What geographers look forDistributionsDistancesDirectionsShapes & formsPatternsCoresperipheries
7 Basic Geographic Concepts Location, Direction and DistanceSize and ScalePhysical and Cultural AttributesAttributes of Place are Always Changing – a dynamic realityInterrelations Between PlacesPlace Similarity and Regions
8 What Is Geography? Systematic Perspective Regional Perspective Physical – subdivisionsHuman/ Cultural – subdivisionsRegional PerspectiveTools of GeographyCartography (tool & means of expression)Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
9 Subfields of Geography Human Geography studiesGrowth & distribution of populationNature of citiesCommunications networksLocation of businesses & industriesGrowth & collapse of empires & nationsSpread of culture traitsTechnologyTrends & stylesReligions & ideologiesPhysical Geography studiesOrigin & nature of continents & landformsOrigin & nature of oceansClimates (past & present)RiversGlaciersOthersSoilsAnimalsPlants
10 Geography is Broad and Integrative Broad: Geography frequently tries to focus on the “whole picture”Integrative: It draws upon almost every academic discipline seeking patterns and connections
15 Origins of Geographic Study Natural human inquisitivenessThinking geographically is one of the oldest human activities. Perhaps the first geographer was a prehistoric human who crossed a river or climbed a hill, observed what was on the other side, returned home to tell about it, and scratched the route in the dirt. Perhaps the second geographer was a friend or relative who followed the dirt map to reach the other side.James M. Rubenstein in Contemporary Human Geography
16 Origins of Geographic Study Ancient civilizations/empires made mapsGreek philosophyGeography = geo (earth) + graphy (inscribe – write about)Why are things where they are & why are they the way they are – causations and conclusions
17 History of Geography Classical Western World Non-European World Erastosthenes ( B.C.)Hipparchus ( B.C.)Non-European WorldAl-Edrisi ( )Ibn-Battuta ( )Ibn-Khaldun ( )The Tribute of YuPhei HsiuKangido
18 Since the 1400’s… General geography (1650) Human-environment tradition Bernhard VarenSpecial geography = regional geographyGeneral geography = topical/systematic geographyHuman-environment traditionAlexander von Humboldt ( )CosmosGeorge Perkins Marsh ( )Man and Nature (1864)
19 Environmental Determinism Humans must adapt to natural conditionsNature sets rather rigid parameters and humans must act within them – culture will be determined by themThis was the prevailing view from Hippocrates through the 19th centuryFriedrich RatzelEllsworth HuntingtonEllen SempleToo rigid and absolute to be accepted today.
20 Possibilism – a balanced approach Nature may influence human action, but not determine itUltimately, humans make the choices for their responses to natural conditions.Technology allows humans to alter or widen the parameters set by natureA more realistic approach than environmental determinism
21 Rationale for Geographic Study “The information that any citizen needs in order to make an informed decision on an important question of the day is largely geographic.”IRAQ
22 Geography Today Association of American Geographers Three approaches 55 topical specialtiesWhere?, What?, When?, Why?, and Why there?Three approachesArea analysis (areal systems analysis)Spatial analysisGeographic information systems analysis
23 Geographic Theme: Location Area AnalysisSite – (absolute location)Exact location of a placeSituation or relative locationLocation of a place relative to other placesAccessibilityConstant changeScaleGlobalizationGeographic Theme: Location
24 WHERE IN THE WORLD IS? Bosnia Kosovo Chechnya Vojvodina Kyrgyzstan RwandaLesothoMyanmarBhutanBangladeshSomaliaMacedoniaAndorraLiechtensteinTasmaniaQatar
25 Regions (Geographic Theme) Formal regionsExhibit uniformity across a cultural or physical characteristicFunctional regionsDefined by interactions among placesVernacular regionsWidespread popular perception of existence
26 Formal & Functional Regions Time zonesStatesCities & Metropolitan areasFunctionalChicago & its hinterland
32 Movement (Geographic Theme) DistanceMeasurementsAbsoluteTimeCostPsychological (perception)Friction of distanceDistance decayAs distance increases, importance of a particular phenomena decreasesEx. Newspaper circulation
34 Three Types of Diffusion Relocation diffusionContiguous diffusionHierarchical diffusionBarriers to diffusionCultural barriersOceans, deserts, distance, timePolitical boundaries, cultural differences
38 Human-Environmental Interaction (Geographic Theme) Reciprocal interactionCultureLanguage, food, religion, social ceremoniesNatural landscapesWithout evidence of human activityCultural landscapesReveals how humans modify local environment
39 The Geographic Grid (absolute location) LongitudeMeasures distance east to west around the globe beginning at the Prime MeridianPrime MeridianInternational Date Line0-180 degrees East or WestLatitudeLocation on the Earth’s surface between the equator and either the north or south poleParallels0-90 degrees North or South
40 Locating Points on a Sphere: the Grid System Latitude – angular distance measured north or south of the Equator through 90º of arc. Degree of constant length – 69 miles.Parallels – not lines of latitudePoleward reduction in lengthLongitude – angular distance measured east or west of the Prime Meridian through 180º of arc. Degree distance decreases poleward.Meridians – not lines of longitudeAll meridians have the same length ½ of Equator
41 A GridLatitude and longitude may be combined on a globe or map to create a grid. One specific parallel will only intersect a specific meridian at one place on the earth. Using the two together allows for locating places precisely.
43 Longitude and time zones Approximately 15º of longitude wide because 360º divided by 24 (hours in a day) equals 15º. Actual boundaries vary from precise meridians to accommodate political and cultural differences
45 Alpha-numeric Grid – commonly used in atlases and on road maps St. Louis is located in section D8
46 The 5 Themes of Geography LOCATIONPLACEMOVEMENTHUMAN/ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONREGIONS(See MyGateway – Supplemental Materials – Chapter 1 folder for a more detailed explanation of the themes and the two subcategories each one has.
47 The Five Themes in Education All elementary and secondary textbooks currently are built around the Five Themes of GeographyThe Five Themes are easy to remember and use
48 Quick Overview of 5 Themes – Click on the picture below to see the video
49 Map Making Cartography Scale Detail and area Fraction 1/24,000 Ratio 1:24,000Written statement “1 inch equals 1 mile”Bar styleDetail and areaSmall scale map = less detail, large denominator (1:1,000,000)Large scale map = more detail, small denominator (1:100,000)1243
50 The Map is the medium or language of geography Can convey much information quickly and effectivelyCan be used to establish theoriesCan be used to solve geographic problemsMay reveal possible interactions and connectionsCan illustrate patterns, flows, distributions, connections, sequent occupance, etc.
51 Five Requirements of a Good Map Grid – to facilitate locating placesDirection arrow or compass rose – to orient the map to the real worldScale – to translate map distances to real-world distancesKey or Legend – to interpret symbols used on the mapTitle – to alert the map reader to the topic or theme of the mapOther useful information: Copyright date & Projection used
53 Map Scale – the conceptScales Of Area Shown – inverse relationship between scale and area shown.Large Scale Maps – show small areas in great detailSmall Scale Maps – show large areas with less detail
55 Simulating a 3rd Dimension Topographic Maps and Terrain RepresentationHachure LinesContour Lines (topographic)Combination Hachure & ContourCombination Contour & Shaded Relief
56 Profile made from a topographic map. For precision, every intersection should be plotted
57 Symbol Choices (the Key) Point Symbols – dots or pictorial symbols or proportional squares or boxesArea Symbols – differences in kind and differences in quantity – differing colors often usedChoropleth – differences in quantityCartogram – differences in quantityLine Symbols – transportation – differing types of lines and colorsIsolines – lines of constant value such as contour linesIsobar – barometric pressure; isohyet -- precipitationIsotherm – temperature; isochrome – travel time from a pointContour line – equal elevation
58 More ChoicesMap of culture regions or agricultural regions – different colors (area symbol)Map of oil, automobile, or wheat production – proportional circles or squares or multiple pictorial symbols (one symbol = a given amount)Map of temperatures or precipitation – isolines (isotherm or isohyet) – barometric pressure -- isobarTraffic volume or trade volume – flow linesUrban center locations – dotUrban size – proportional circles or other symbolDistribution of a phenomenon – dot distribution
59 ProjectionsScientific (mathematical) method of transferring locations on Earth’s surface to a flat map4 types of distortion – all maps are distorted in some way or other!ShapeDistanceRelative sizeDirection
60 Types of Map Projections CylindricalConicPlanarEqual AreaEquidistantConformalSpecial cases
61 Mercator Projection: Conformal – useful for navigation Proportional areas!Equal-area Projection: good for spatial comparisons.
62 Geographic Information Technology Automated cartographyManual techniques expensiveComputer Assisted Drawing (CAD)Sophisticated, specialized digital cartography systemsEasier, cheaper editing
63 Remote SensingAcquisition of data about Earth’s surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or from high-flying aircraft
64 Satellites Landsat Weather satellites 1972; 1999 Sensors measure radiation of colors of visible lightPixel size (resolution): 59x59 metersIKONOS resolution: 1.5x1.5 metersWeather satellitesVery large pixels
66 Remotely Sensed Data Human activities Wartime applications Changes in plant growthDrainage patternsErosion associated with agricultureLogging and forest managementWetland monitoringWartime applications
68 GIS Database software for digital information Layers Contains same information as regular databasePLUSSpatial characteristics such as boundary information or coordinatesAn identifying characteristic that locates the item in space (i.e., address)LayersInformation with specific characteristicsSoils, hydrology, land ownershipCan be combined for analysis
70 GIS – Commercial & Educational Applications After selecting the data, the different layers of information are sandwiched togetherCartographer can examine different combinations and select the best one
71 Digital Geographic Information RasterGrid cells of dataRemote sensing imagesPixelsVectorPoint, line, polygon dataX and Y coordinatesDifferent uses and spatial accuracies
72 Digital Data Conversion of paper to digital formats Digital database creationRemote sensing imagesDigitizingTracing linesAvailable types of dataTopographic mapsDRG and DLGUS Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetlands InventoryCensus Bureau TIGER files
73 GIS Spatial AnalysisCalculating densities and distribution of population“Counting” lakesMonitoring environmental changes with satellite imagesAnalyzing changes in food production and land use
74 Purposely Misleading or to “See With New Eyes”? Map projections can be selected to express information as accurately as possible.Map projections can be selected to purposely mislead the map reader.The map reader must be prepared to distinguish truth from misleading information.Map projections, or quasi-projections can be selected or used to create an unexpected, revealing view
87 Animated MapsShow change over time such as population growth and dispersion
88 Types of common mapsPhysical/Political map – combines political boundaries and physical features and possibly more – good general referenceTopographic maps – Primary feature: uses contour lines to give impression of the land surface – also includes cultural features -- good for hiking, hunting, camping, orienteering, for selecting potential sites for human useRoad or transportation map – shows various means of transportation plus political features
89 General purpose road maps Often published by individual states of USOften supplied in at least class-set quantities to educators without costUsually free to travelers at information/rest stop locations, particularly near the state borderCombine much informationSome major physical featuresRoads, railroads, rivers, airportsParks, national forests, special tourist attractionsState and county boundaries
90 THE JOY OF MAPS IS THAT IT OPENS A LOVE OF THE WORLD FOR YOU!
91 Geographic Contribution Superb antidote to “tunnel vision” in an age of specializationLive in a world of growing & strengthening interconnectionsScope of geography can be narrow or broad enough to encompass the whole earthHas relevance to much that happensSpatial perspective reveals linkages and interconnectionsCartographic aspect is extremely useful
92 What we do or don’t do, impacts the environment – we must be responsible world citizens. We have to live on earth with the consequences of our actions.