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Introduction to Geography People, Places, and Environment, 6e Carl Dahlman William H. Renwick Chapter 1: Introduction to Geography Holly Barcus Morehead.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Geography People, Places, and Environment, 6e Carl Dahlman William H. Renwick Chapter 1: Introduction to Geography Holly Barcus Morehead."— Presentation transcript:


2 Introduction to Geography People, Places, and Environment, 6e Carl Dahlman William H. Renwick Chapter 1: Introduction to Geography Holly Barcus Morehead State University & Joe Naumann - UMSL

3 2 Conclusion from a healthy world view "The deeper we look into nature the more we recognize that it is full of life, and the more profoundly we know that all life is a secret, and we are all united to all this life." Albert Schweitzer

4 3 Overview: Chapter 1 The Nature of Geography Evolution of the Discipline Some Basic Geographic Concepts Geography’s Themes and Standards Maps - Cartography

5 Geography The study of the interaction of all physical and human phenomena at individual places and of how interactions among places form patterns and organize space.

6 5 The Nature of Geography Geographers apply the spatial perspective whereas historians apply the time perspective For maximum understanding, the geographer must also be aware of the time perspective and visa versa.

7 6 Geographic focus What geographers look for –Distributions –Distances –Directions –Shapes & forms –Patterns –Cores –peripheries

8 7 Basic Geographic Concepts Location, Direction and Distance Size and Scale Physical and Cultural Attributes Attributes of Place are Always Changing – a dynamic reality Interrelations Between Places Place Similarity and Regions

9 8 What Is Geography? Systematic Perspective –Physical – subdivisions –Human/ Cultural – subdivisions Regional Perspective Tools of Geography Cartography (tool & means of expression) Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

10 9 Subfields of Geography Physical Geography studies –Origin & nature of continents & landforms –Origin & nature of oceans –Climates (past & present) –Rivers –Glaciers –Others Soils Animals Plants Human Geography studies –Growth & distribution of population –Nature of cities –Communications networks –Location of businesses & industries –Growth & collapse of empires & nations –Spread of culture traits Technology Trends & styles Religions & ideologies

11 10 Geography is Broad and Integrative Broad: Geography frequently tries to focus on the “whole picture” Integrative: It draws upon almost every academic discipline seeking patterns and connections

12 11 Geography as Mother of many Sciences

13 12 People as well as academic disciplines have different perspectives

14 13 Awaken to the Wonders of Geography

15 14 Geography began with questions.

16 Origins of Geographic Study Natural human inquisitiveness Thinking geographically is one of the oldest human activities. Perhaps the first geographer was a prehistoric human who crossed a river or climbed a hill, observed what was on the other side, returned home to tell about it, and scratched the route in the dirt. Perhaps the second geographer was a friend or relative who followed the dirt map to reach the other side. –James M. Rubenstein in Contemporary Human Geography 15

17 16 Origins of Geographic Study Ancient civilizations/empires made maps Greek philosophy –Geography = geo (earth) + graphy (inscribe – write about) –Why are things where they are & why are they the way they are – causations and conclusions

18 17 History of Geography Classical Western World –Erastosthenes (275-195 B.C.) –Hipparchus (180-127 B.C.) Non-European World –Al-Edrisi (1099-1154) –Ibn-Battuta (1304-1378) –Ibn-Khaldun (1332-1406) –The Tribute of Yu –Phei Hsiu –Kangido

19 18 Since the 1400’s… General geography (1650) –Bernhard Varen –Special geography = regional geography –General geography = topical/systematic geography Human-environment tradition –Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859) Cosmos –George Perkins Marsh (1801-1882) Man and Nature (1864)

20 19 Environmental Determinism Humans must adapt to natural conditions Nature sets rather rigid parameters and humans must act within them – culture will be determined by them This was the prevailing view from Hippocrates through the 19 th century –Friedrich Ratzel –Ellsworth Huntington –Ellen Semple Too rigid and absolute to be accepted today.

21 20 Possibilism – a balanced approach Nature may influence human action, but not determine it Ultimately, humans make the choices for their responses to natural conditions. Technology allows humans to alter or widen the parameters set by nature A more realistic approach than environmental determinism

22 21 Rationale for Geographic Study “The information that any citizen needs in order to make an informed decision on an important question of the day is largely geographic.” IRAQ

23 22 Geography Today Association of American Geographers –55 topical specialties – –Where?, What?, When?, Why?, and Why there? Three approaches –Area analysis (areal systems analysis) –Spatial analysis –Geographic information systems analysis

24 23 Area Analysis Site – (absolute location) –Exact location of a place Situation or relative location –Location of a place relative to other places –Accessibility –Constant change –Scale Globalization Geographic Theme: Location

25 24 WHERE IN THE WORLD IS? Bosnia Kosovo Chechnya Vojvodina Kyrgyzstan Rwanda Lesotho Myanmar Bhutan Bangladesh Somalia Macedonia Andorra Liechtenstein Tasmania Qatar

26 25 Regions (Geographic Theme) Formal regions –Exhibit uniformity across a cultural or physical characteristic Functional regions –Defined by interactions among places Vernacular regions –Widespread popular perception of existence

27 Formal & Functional Regions Formal –Time zones – States – Cities & Metropolitan areas Functional –Chicago & its hinterland



30 29 Spatial Analysis Distribution Three properties of distribution –Density –Concentration –Pattern


32 31 Areal (spatial) systems analysis

33 32 Movement (Geographic Theme) Distance –Measurements Absolute Time Cost Psychological (perception) –Friction of distance Distance decay –As distance increases, importance of a particular phenomena decreases Ex. Newspaper circulation


35 34 Three Types of Diffusion Relocation diffusion Contiguous diffusion Hierarchical diffusion Barriers to diffusion –Cultural barriers Oceans, deserts, distance, time Political boundaries, cultural differences

36 Hierarchical Diffusion

37 36 4 Physical Systems Atmosphere (air) Lithosphere (Earth’s solid rocks) Hydrosphere (water) Biosphere (living organisms)

38 37 Earth’s 4 Interrelated Physical Systems

39 38 Human-Environmental Interaction (Geographic Theme) Reciprocal interaction Culture –Language, food, religion, social ceremonies Natural landscapes –Without evidence of human activity Cultural landscapes –Reveals how humans modify local environment

40 39 The Geographic Grid (absolute location) Longitude –Measures distance east to west around the globe beginning at the Prime Meridian –Prime Meridian –International Date Line –0-180 degrees East or West Latitude –Location on the Earth’s surface between the equator and either the north or south pole –Parallels –0-90 degrees North or South

41 40 Locating Points on a Sphere: the Grid System Latitude – angular distance measured north or south of the Equator through 90º of arc. Degree of constant length – 69 miles. –Parallels – not lines of latitude Poleward reduction in length Longitude – angular distance measured east or west of the Prime Meridian through 180º of arc. Degree distance decreases poleward. –Meridians – not lines of longitude All meridians have the same length ½ of Equator

42 41 A Grid Latitude and longitude may be combined on a globe or map to create a grid. One specific parallel will only intersect a specific meridian at one place on the earth. Using the two together allows for locating places precisely.

43 Creating a Grid

44 43 Longitude and time zones Approximately 15º of longitude wide because 360º divided by 24 (hours in a day) equals 15º. Actual boundaries vary from precise meridians to accommodate political and cultural differences

45 The Reality of Time Zones

46 45 Alpha-numeric Grid – commonly used in atlases and on road maps St. Louis is located in section D8

47 46 The 5 Themes of Geography LOCATION PLACE MOVEMENT HUMAN/ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION REGIONS (See MyGateway – Supplemental Materials – Chapter 1 folder for a more detailed explanation of the themes and the two subcategories each one has.

48 47 The Five Themes in Education All elementary and secondary textbooks currently are built around the Five Themes of Geography The Five Themes are easy to remember and use

49 48 Quick Overview of 5 Themes – Click on the picture below to see the video

50 49 Map Making Cartography Scale –Fraction1/24,000 –Ratio1:24,000 –Written statement “1 inch equals 1 mile” –Bar style Detail and area –Small scale map = less detail, large denominator (1:1,000,000) –Large scale map = more detail, small denominator (1:100,000) 0 1243

51 50 The Map is the medium or language of geography Can convey much information quickly and effectively Can be used to establish theories Can be used to solve geographic problems May reveal possible interactions and connections Can illustrate patterns, flows, distributions, connections, sequent occupance, etc.

52 51 Five Requirements of a Good Map 1.Grid – to facilitate locating places 2. Direction arrow or compass rose – to orient the map to the real world 3. Scale – to translate map distances to real-world distances 4. Key or Legend – to interpret symbols used on the map 5. Title – to alert the map reader to the topic or theme of the map Other useful information: Copyright date & Projection used


54 53 Map Scale – the concept Scales Of Area Shown – inverse relationship between scale and area shown. –Large Scale Maps – show small areas in great detail –Small Scale Maps – show large areas with less detail


56 55 Simulating a 3 rd Dimension Topographic Maps and Terrain Representation 1.Hachure Lines 2.Contour Lines (topographic) 3.Combination Hachure & Contour 4.Combination Contour & Shaded Relief

57 56 Profile made from a topographic map. For precision, every intersection should be plotted

58 57 Symbol Choices (the Key) Point Symbols – dots or pictorial symbols or proportional squares or boxes Area Symbols – differences in kind and differences in quantity – differing colors often used –Choropleth – differences in quantity –Cartogram – differences in quantity Line Symbols – transportation – differing types of lines and colors –Isolines – lines of constant value such as contour lines Isobar – barometric pressure; isohyet -- precipitation Isotherm – temperature; isochrome – travel time from a point Contour line – equal elevation

59 58 More Choices Map of culture regions or agricultural regions – different colors (area symbol) Map of oil, automobile, or wheat production – proportional circles or squares or multiple pictorial symbols (one symbol = a given amount) Map of temperatures or precipitation – isolines (isotherm or isohyet) – barometric pressure -- isobar Traffic volume or trade volume – flow lines Urban center locations – dot Urban size – proportional circles or other symbol Distribution of a phenomenon – dot distribution

60 59 Projections Scientific (mathematical) method of transferring locations on Earth’s surface to a flat map 4 types of distortion – all maps are distorted in some way or other! –Shape –Distance –Relative size –Direction

61 60 Types of Map Projections Cylindrical Conic Planar Equal Area Equidistant Conformal Special cases

62 Mercator Projection: Conformal – useful for navigation Equal-area Projection: good for spatial comparisons. Proportional areas!

63 62 Geographic Information Technology Automated cartography –Manual techniques expensive –Computer Assisted Drawing (CAD) Sophisticated, specialized digital cartography systems Easier, cheaper editing

64 Remote Sensing Acquisition of data about Earth’s surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or from high-flying aircraft

65 64 Satellites Landsat –1972; 1999 –Sensors measure radiation of colors of visible light –Pixel size (resolution): 59x59 meters –IKONOS resolution: 1.5x1.5 meters Weather satellites –Very large pixels


67 66 Remotely Sensed Data Human activities –Changes in plant growth –Drainage patterns –Erosion associated with agriculture –Logging and forest management –Wetland monitoring Wartime applications

68 Change in Forest Cover

69 68 GIS Database software for digital information –Contains same information as regular database –PLUS Spatial characteristics such as boundary information or coordinates An identifying characteristic that locates the item in space (i.e., address) Layers –Information with specific characteristics Soils, hydrology, land ownership –Can be combined for analysis


71 70 GIS – Commercial & Educational Applications After selecting the data, the different layers of information are sandwiched together Cartographer can examine different combinations and select the best one

72 71 Digital Geographic Information Raster –Grid cells of data Remote sensing images Pixels Vector –Point, line, polygon data –X and Y coordinates Different uses and spatial accuracies

73 72 Digital Data Conversion of paper to digital formats Digital database creation –Remote sensing images –Digitizing Tracing lines Available types of data –Topographic maps DRG and DLG –US Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory –Census Bureau TIGER files

74 73 GIS Spatial Analysis Calculating densities and distribution of population “Counting” lakes Monitoring environmental changes with satellite images Analyzing changes in food production and land use

75 74 Purposely Misleading or to “See With New Eyes”? Map projections can be selected to express information as accurately as possible. Map projections can be selected to purposely mislead the map reader. The map reader must be prepared to distinguish truth from misleading information. Map projections, or quasi-projections can be selected or used to create an unexpected, revealing view

76 75 Point of View or World View

77 76 See – I didn’t make it up!

78 77 A Hemisphere is a Hemisphere, is a Hemisphere…. Land Hemisphere Water Hemisphere The possibilities are infinite

79 If the possibilities are unlimited..... How about a N. Atlantic Hemisphere? 78

80 79 Map Projection and Specialty Examples

81 80 Dot Distribution

82 81 Choropleth Map

83 82 Cartogram

84 83 Making a Cartogram Computer programs can adjust the areas to the data, such as population, and adjust the shapes to obtain a recognizable configuration.

85 84 Flow-line Maps show direction and volume or intensity.

86 85 Boundaries can really generalize a transition zone -- climate

87 86 Boundary transitions -- language

88 87 Animated Maps Show change over time such as population growth and dispersion

89 88 Types of common maps Physical/Political map – combines political boundaries and physical features and possibly more – good general reference Topographic maps – Primary feature: uses contour lines to give impression of the land surface – also includes cultural features -- good for hiking, hunting, camping, orienteering, for selecting potential sites for human use Road or transportation map – shows various means of transportation plus political features

90 89 General purpose road maps Often published by individual states of US –Often supplied in at least class-set quantities to educators without cost –Usually free to travelers at information/rest stop locations, particularly near the state border Combine much information –Some major physical features –Roads, railroads, rivers, airports –Parks, national forests, special tourist attractions –State and county boundaries


92 91 Geographic Contribution Superb antidote to “tunnel vision” in an age of specialization –Live in a world of growing & strengthening interconnections Scope of geography can be narrow or broad enough to encompass the whole earth Has relevance to much that happens Spatial perspective reveals linkages and interconnections Cartographic aspect is extremely useful

93 92 What we do or don’t do, impacts the environment – we must be responsible world citizens. We have to live on earth with the consequences of our actions.

94 93 End of Chapter 1

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