Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1: How Geographers Look at the World"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 1: How Geographers Look at the World Unit 1: The WorldChapter 1: How Geographers Look at the World
2 Geography Skills Handbook Why is geography important to our daily lives?GlobesScaled model of the Earth. Very little detail.Taking it from 3-D to 2-DUse mathematical formulas to transfer information from globe to mapsWorks great until you get to poles.Great Circle Routes- follows the great circle which is an imaginary line that goes around the Earth. Used by ship captains and pilots to reduce travel time.Tokyo to Las Angeles
3 ProjectionsThere are specific kinds of projections. All projections have distorted informationProjections all focus on one aspect that is accuratePlanar Projection- also called azimuthal. Most accurate at the center. Can draw a line from the center to anywhere at it is the shortest distance. Used for mapping the poles.Cylindrical Projection- map on a cylinder. Accurate at center. Highly distorted at the polesConic Projection- most accurate around the equator. Show limited areas. Good for distance and directionsWinkel Tripel- most world maps are this. Fairly accurate.Goode’s Interrupted Equal Area- globe cut apart and laid out. Most accurate representation of Earth.Robinson- minor distortions. Poles are laid flat. Most land accurate.Mercator- very distorted. Accurate at Equator but not at poles.
4 Longitude Latitude Robinson Projection Mercator Projection World Map Goode’s Interrupted EqualArea ProjectionMap Projections: Planar,Conic, and CylindricalLatitudeRobinsonProjectionMercatorProjectionWinkel TripelProjectionWorld Map
5 Geography Skills Handbook Location and Maps- grid system on the map can help you locate things.Determining LocationLatitude- parallels. Circle the Earth. Measure distance north and south of Equator. Equator is measured at 0° latitude and the Poles are 90 °Longitude- Meridians. Circle Earth from pole to pole. Measure distance east and west of Prime Meridian at 0 ° longitude. 180 ° longitude is called the International Date Line and is on the opposite side of the globe.Global Grid- absolute location can be found for everything using the grid system. Find latitude and longitude. Even narrowed down more by dividing each degree into 60 minutes.Hemispheres- north, south, east and west.
7 Reading a Map Tools for reading a map- key, scale bar, compass rose Using a scale- proportional relationship between measurement on a map and the real measurement on Earth’ surfaceSmall scale- large area with very little detailLarge scale- small area with a lot of detail.Absolute Location- exact position of a place on earth.Relative Location- position of a place on earth relative to another.
8 Kinds of Maps Physical Maps- Political Maps Thematic Maps Location and topographyWater features, landforms,relief and elevationPolitical MapsBoundaries and location of political unitsHuman made featuresThematic MapsFocus on one idea and each serves different purpose.Qualitative Maps- colors, lines, and symbols to show information..Flow Line Maps- movement of people, animals, goods and ideas.Geographic Information SystemsAccept information and put it all in database. Use to make maps.
9 Elements of Geography World in Spatial Terms- Places and Regions Links that people and places have to each other based on locationSite- specific location of a places- small picturesituation- relative location- big picturePlaces and RegionsFormal region- defined by common characteristic. Corn BeltFunctional Region- central place and surrounding area. Metropolitan areas.Perceptual Region- defined by popular feelings and images. Heartland.Physical and Human SystemsDifferent branches.Physical- climate, land, water, plants, and animalsHuman- human activities and relationships to cultural and physical environment.
10 Regions Perceptual Region example Functional Region example Formal Region example
11 Elements of Geography Environment and Society Research methods Study of interrelationship between people and environment.Research methodsDirection Observation- satellite images and aerial photographs.Mapping- taking information and making it accessible for average person.Interviewing- talk to sample that represents the whole groupAnalyzing Statistics- numerical information to determine rainfall patters, etc.Using Technology- GIS and computers/satellites.
12 Geography and Other Subjects. Past Environments and PoliticsWhat places might have looked like. How they were governed.How natural environment has impacted politics and vice versus.Society and CultureSociology and anthropology used to understand world culturesEconomicsLocation of resources affect the way people make, transport, and use goods. interdependenceGeography as a CareerPhysical- find work as climate and weather experts or in environmental fieldHuman- find work in health care, transportation, population studies, economic development