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Geography Handbook pp. 1-13. Landforms Map Elements Bodies of Water CanyonBasinCapeCliffContinentDeltaDivideGlacierHighlandHillIslandIsthmusLowlandMesaMountain.

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Presentation on theme: "Geography Handbook pp. 1-13. Landforms Map Elements Bodies of Water CanyonBasinCapeCliffContinentDeltaDivideGlacierHighlandHillIslandIsthmusLowlandMesaMountain."— Presentation transcript:

1 Geography Handbook pp. 1-13

2 Landforms Map Elements Bodies of Water CanyonBasinCapeCliffContinentDeltaDivideGlacierHighlandHillIslandIsthmusLowlandMesaMountain Mountain peak Mountain range PeninsulaPlainPlateauValleyVolcanoMeridian Absolute location ElevationEquator Cultural feature LatitudeLongitudeMapParallel Physical feature Prime Meridian Relief Sea level BayChannelGulfLakeRiverSeaSoundSourceStraitTributaryDownstreamUpstreamHarbor

3 5 Themes of Geography 1. Location 2. Place 3. Human/environment interaction 4. Movement 5. Regions

4 *6 Essential Elements* pp. 1-3 Element 1: The World in Spatial Terms Where is a place located? Where is a place located? Location = a starting place Location = a starting place …awareness of the world around you …awareness of the world around you Element 2: Places and Regions Place is not just geographic location Place is not just geographic location Place includes physical characteristics (mountains, lakes, etc) Place includes physical characteristics (mountains, lakes, etc) regions: places grouped together by common characteristics regions: places grouped together by common characteristics

5 Element 3: Physical Systems how hurricanes, volcanoes, etc. shape the earth’s surface how hurricanes, volcanoes, etc. shape the earth’s surface plants’ and animals’ dependence on each other and their surroundings plants’ and animals’ dependence on each other and their surroundings

6 Element 4: Human Systems the way people shape the earth the way people shape the earth Boundaries Boundaries Settlement patterns Settlement patterns Movement of people ideas and goods Movement of people ideas and goods

7 Element 5: Environment and Society Relationship between people and their natural surroundings Relationship between people and their natural surroundings

8 Element 6: Uses of Geography Understanding relationships among people, places, and environments over time Understanding relationships among people, places, and environments over time Understand the past (written records, artifacts, fossils) and prepare for the future Understand the past (written records, artifacts, fossils) and prepare for the future

9 USING MAPS AND GLOBES (p. 4) Hemispheres: Imaginary lines that criss-cross the globe and are used to locate places on Earth Imaginary lines that criss-cross the globe and are used to locate places on Earth Equator: (east to west)— circles the globe like a belt Divides Earth into “half spheres” or hemispheres Divides Earth into “half spheres” or hemispheres North of the equator = N. Hemisphere North of the equator = N. Hemisphere South of the Equator = S. Hemisphere South of the Equator = S. Hemisphere

10 Hemispheres (cont.) Prime Meridian: Runs from north to south Runs from north to south Divides the earth into “half spheres” or hemispheres in the other direction Divides the earth into “half spheres” or hemispheres in the other direction Everything E. of the Prime Meridian for 180 degrees = E. Hemisphere Everything E. of the Prime Meridian for 180 degrees = E. Hemisphere Everything W. of the Prime Meridian for 180 degrees = W. Hemisphere Everything W. of the Prime Meridian for 180 degrees = W. Hemisphere

11 Latitude and Longitude Crisscross globes and maps Crisscross globes and maps Help easily locate places Help easily locate places Form pattern called a grid Form pattern called a gridLatitude: Parallels (latitude lines) circle Earth parallel to the equator in Parallels (latitude lines) circle Earth parallel to the equator in Measure distance N. or S. of the equator in degrees Measure distance N. or S. of the equator in degrees Equator = 0 degrees latitude Equator = 0 degrees latitude North Pole = 90 degrees N North Pole = 90 degrees NLongitude/Meridians: Circle the the earth from pole to pole Circle the the earth from pole to pole Measure dostamces East or West of the starting line (Prime Meridian) Measure dostamces East or West of the starting line (Prime Meridian) Prime Meridian = 0 degrees longitude Prime Meridian = 0 degrees longitude Absolute location: Possible because of grid formed by latitude and longitude lines Possible because of grid formed by latitude and longitude lines Place located at a specific crossing of latitude and longitude Place located at a specific crossing of latitude and longitude

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13 Globes to Maps (p. 6) Globe-round scale model of Earth Gives a true picture of the relative sizes of landmasses and bodies of water Gives a true picture of the relative sizes of landmasses and bodies of water Accurately show distance and direction Accurately show distance and direction Map-flat drawing of all or part of the earth’s surface Show small areas in great detail: political boundaries, population densities, and voting returns Show small areas in great detail: political boundaries, population densities, and voting returns

14 Globe to map challenges: Difficult to draw round surface to flat map Difficult to draw round surface to flat map Cartographers (mapmakers) use math formulas to transfer info to map Cartographers (mapmakers) use math formulas to transfer info to map Distortion occurs Distortion occurs Solution=great circle: imaginary line that follows the curve of the earth Solution=great circle: imaginary line that follows the curve of the earth Example: line drawn along the equator Example: line drawn along the equator great circle route- traveling along the great circle great circle route- traveling along the great circle used by pilots because it is the shortest distance between cities used by pilots because it is the shortest distance between cities Map: route doesn’t appear to be shortest distance Map: route doesn’t appear to be shortest distance Globe: route appears as shortest route Globe: route appears as shortest route

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16 Mapmaking Technology GIS (geographic information systems): software that layers data from satellite images printed text, and statistics

17 Mapmaking Technology GPS (global positioning system): helps locate places based on coordinates broadcast by satellites

18 Common Map Projections projections:-ways of showing Earth on a flat piece of paper 1. Goode’s Interrupted Equal Area: shows continents close to their true shapes and sizes  Helpful to compare land areas among continents

19 2. Robinson Projection:  Minor distortions  E. and W. are close to globe  North Pole and South Pole are most distorted

20 3. Winkel Tripel Projection: good overall view of continents’ shapes

21 Mercator Projection: shows direction and size pretty well, but areas far from the equator are very distorted

22 Parts of Maps map key-explains lines symbols and colors map key-explains lines symbols and colors Example: =city; =capital city scale bar:

23 Compass Rose: symbol that tells cardinal directions (N, S, E, W)

24 Map Types (p. 9-10) General Purpose: wide range of general information (physical and political) Physical maps: show landforms and water features  Relief: flat or rugged land  Elevation: height of an area above sea level Political Maps: show names and boundaries of states/countries  Cities, human made features

25 Map Types (p. 9-10) Cont. Contour Maps: physical map that shows elevation  Contour lines-one for each level of elevation Special Purpose Maps (thematic maps): specific topics in detail  Climate, population density, battle sites

26 Physical Map

27 Political Map

28 Contour Map

29 Special Purpose Maps

30 Charts and Graphs Study Charts and Graphs Pages 11- 13 Study Charts and Graphs Pages 11- 13 Coming Soon Chart/Graph Activities!! Coming Soon Chart/Graph Activities!!


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