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Geography Handbook pp. 1-13.

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Presentation on theme: "Geography Handbook pp. 1-13."— Presentation transcript:

1 Geography Handbook pp. 1-13

2 Landforms Map Elements Bodies of Water Meridian Absolute location
Canyon Basin Cape Cliff Continent Delta Divide Glacier Highland Hill Island Isthmus Lowland Mesa Mountain Mountain peak Mountain range Peninsula Plain Plateau Valley Volcano Meridian Absolute location Elevation Equator Cultural feature Latitude Longitude Map Parallel Physical feature Prime Meridian Relief Sea level Bay Channel Gulf Lake River Sea Sound Source Strait Tributary Downstream Upstream Harbor

3 5 Themes of Geography Location Place Human/environment interaction
Movement Regions

4 *6 Essential Elements* pp. 1-3
Element 1: The World in Spatial Terms Where is a place located? Location = a starting place …awareness of the world around you Element 2: Places and Regions Place is not just geographic location Place includes physical characteristics (mountains, lakes, etc) regions: places grouped together by common characteristics

5 Element 3: Physical Systems
how hurricanes, volcanoes, etc. shape the earth’s surface plants’ and animals’ dependence on each other and their surroundings

6 Element 4: Human Systems
the way people shape the earth Boundaries Settlement patterns Movement of people ideas and goods

7 Element 5: Environment and Society
Relationship between people and their natural surroundings

8 Element 6: Uses of Geography
Understanding relationships among people, places, and environments over time Understand the past (written records, artifacts, fossils) and prepare for the future

Hemispheres: Imaginary lines that criss-cross the globe and are used to locate places on Earth Equator: (east to west)—circles the globe like a belt Divides Earth into “half spheres” or hemispheres North of the equator = N. Hemisphere South of the Equator = S. Hemisphere

10 Hemispheres (cont.) Prime Meridian: Runs from north to south
Divides the earth into “half spheres” or hemispheres in the other direction Everything E. of the Prime Meridian for 180 degrees = E. Hemisphere Everything W. of the Prime Meridian for 180 degrees = W. Hemisphere

11 Latitude and Longitude
Crisscross globes and maps Help easily locate places Form pattern called a grid Latitude: Parallels (latitude lines) circle Earth parallel to the equator in Measure distance N. or S. of the equator in degrees Equator = 0 degrees latitude North Pole = 90 degrees N Longitude/Meridians: Circle the the earth from pole to pole Measure dostamces East or West of the starting line (Prime Meridian) Prime Meridian = 0 degrees longitude Absolute location: Possible because of grid formed by latitude and longitude lines Place located at a specific crossing of latitude and longitude


13 Globes to Maps (p. 6) Globe-round scale model of Earth
Gives a true picture of the relative sizes of landmasses and bodies of water Accurately show distance and direction Map-flat drawing of all or part of the earth’s surface Show small areas in great detail: political boundaries, population densities, and voting returns

14 Globe to map challenges:
Difficult to draw round surface to flat map Cartographers (mapmakers) use math formulas to transfer info to map Distortion occurs Solution=great circle: imaginary line that follows the curve of the earth Example: line drawn along the equator great circle route- traveling along the great circle used by pilots because it is the shortest distance between cities Map: route doesn’t appear to be shortest distance Globe: route appears as shortest route


16 Mapmaking Technology GIS (geographic information systems): software that layers data from satellite images printed text, and statistics

17 Mapmaking Technology GPS (global positioning system): helps locate places based on coordinates broadcast by satellites

18 Common Map Projections
projections:-ways of showing Earth on a flat piece of paper Goode’s Interrupted Equal Area: shows continents close to their true shapes and sizes Helpful to compare land areas among continents

19 2. Robinson Projection: Minor distortions E. and W. are close to globe North Pole and South Pole are most distorted

20 3. Winkel Tripel Projection: good overall view of continents’ shapes

21 Mercator Projection: shows direction and size pretty well, but areas far from the equator are very distorted

22 Parts of Maps map key-explains lines symbols and colors
Example: =city; =capital city scale bar:

23 Compass Rose: symbol that tells cardinal directions (N, S, E, W)

24 Map Types (p. 9-10) General Purpose: wide range of general information (physical and political) Physical maps: show landforms and water features Relief: flat or rugged land Elevation: height of an area above sea level Political Maps: show names and boundaries of states/countries Cities, human made features

25 Map Types (p. 9-10) Cont. Contour Maps: physical map that shows elevation Contour lines-one for each level of elevation Special Purpose Maps (thematic maps): specific topics in detail Climate, population density, battle sites

26 Physical Map

27 Political Map

28 Contour Map

29 Special Purpose Maps

30 Charts and Graphs Study Charts and Graphs Pages 11-13
Coming Soon Chart/Graph Activities!!

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