Presentation on theme: "Chp 22 War & the American State WWI. The Outbreak of WW I (AKA the Great war) was the inevitable outcome of a European Crisis that was sparked when a."— Presentation transcript:
The Outbreak of WW I (AKA the Great war) was the inevitable outcome of a European Crisis that was sparked when a Bosnian recruited by Serbian Terrorists assassinated Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary.
The Russians stepped up to defend the Serbians The French were allied with the Russians, The British had an alliance with France… The Italians were allied with Germany but declined to enter the war and in 1915 they were convinced to enter the war with the “Allies” along with Japan. The Austria-Hungarians had an agreement with the Germans, and with Turkey. They were known as the Central powers and by 1915 Bulgaria had joined in with them. The Russians stepped up to defend the Serbians The French were allied with the Russians, The British had an alliance with France… The Italians were allied with Germany but declined to enter the war and in 1915 they were convinced to enter the war with the “Allies” along with Japan. The Austria-Hungarians had an agreement with the Germans, and with Turkey. They were known as the Central powers and by 1915 Bulgaria had joined in with them.
Woodrow Wilson wished to keep the U.S. Neutral at the beginning of the war primarily because he felt from this position he could arbitrate the settlement of the war.
A significant factor in which way American “neutrality” leaned during the war was that trade with the allies rose almost 4 times whereas trade with the Central Powers shriveled to a trickle.
Early in the War Britain imposed a Naval Blockade on the Central Powers, but also cutting American trade. The Germans challenged the British dominance of the seas with their new Weapon; The U-BOAT (Submarine) Which they used to attack and sink Merchant vessels bringing supplies to Britain. A passenger ship, The Lusitania was sunk without warning, killing 128 Americans. When Wilson Protested this brutal violation of neutrality rights, Germany responded by Announcing, on September of 1915 that they would not attack passenger vessels without warning.
But in January of 1917, Germany announced that it would resume unrestricted Submarine warfare.
In 1917, Germany’s Foreign Secretary, Arthur Zimmerman sent a cable to the German Minister in Mexico City encouraging Mexico to join with the Central Powers in the war, and promising that the Central powers would help Mexico recover The New Mexico territory lost to the U.S.. When this intercepted document became public, it inflamed American sentiment against Germany.
When Woodrow Wilson went before congress to ask for a declaration of war in 1917, He said; “… The world must be made safe for democracy… We desire no conquest, no dominion, …no material compensation for the sacrifices we freely make. We are but one of the champions of the rights of Mankind…”
In March of 1917, The New Bolshevik Government of Russia made a separate peace in the Treaty of Brest- Litovsk, giving up extensive territories in Russia’s borderlands in return for peace.
The biggest contribution to the allied contribution to the Allied victory was at the battle of Meuse- Argonne, were U.S. soldiers pushed the enemy back across the Selle River and broke German Defenses.
Americans came in at the end of the war and suffered about 48,000 casualties in battle… another 27,000 died of other causes, (influenza primarily) compared to allied and Central power casualties which numbered 8 million.
As big as the casualties of war were, the biggest killer by far was the Spanish Flu pandemic which ran from 1918 to 1919 and it is estimated 30 to 50 million died world wide & 675,000 Americans died. In most flu epidemics The very old and infants with compromised immune systems are usually the highest mortality, but with the 1918 pandemic killed mostly Healthy young adults. A few small American towns tried to quarantine their town to prevent outsiders from coming in, blockading and arming their roads.
African American Soldiers in WWI were assigned primarily to duty in segregated troops as menial workers under the command of White officers. Many that did see combat were placed in French battalions.
To Finance the War the U.S. Government Expanded the money supply (printed more money) Taxed Corporations, and sold war Bonds.
Heroes emerged from the War. Sergeant Alvin York made history by taking 132 prisoners of war, almost single handed. Not all heroes were on the Battle field. Herbert Hoover saved uncounted lives heading up the Food Administration and the Belgian relief fund. The Food Administration encouraged the public to conserve food through voluntary constraint.
During the war the Economy was managed considerably by the Government, in addition to the Food Administration, there was the Fuel Administration, Railroad War Board, the War Labor Board and the War Industries Board. With the signing of the Armistice in November 1918, The government scrambled to dismantle these wartime measures.
The National War Labor Board established an 8 hour work day with time and a half pay for overtime work. But after the war Unions lost wartime gains in membership with wages dropping and they suffered from antiunion attitudes from industry & the public.
During the war more than 400,000 African Americans moved to the Northern States in a migration that continued for decades. Political instability in Mexico caused many Mexicans to temporarily or permanently relocate to the U.S..
Women played a major part in the war effort and this highlighted the contradiction of “fighting for democracy” overseas while denying an entire segment of population the right to vote. While Wilson initially opposed the 19 th Amendment He eventually saw the reason in changing his position.
Alcohol Prohibition became a more mainstream idea, especially with so many breweries having German sounding names. In 1917 Congress passed the 18 th Amendment which prohibited the manufacture, transport and sale of Intoxicating liquors. Religious organizations and progressives supported it, but Working class immigrants felt it was an imposition of middle class values on working class people.
During World War I,repressing opposition to the draft as well as concern for German Spies and saboteurs brought about the Espionage act of 1917 and the Sedition act of 1918 gave the Federal Government “legal” tools to imprison dissenters such as Wobblies and Socialists. More than 1000 people were prosecuted under these laws including Eugene Debs who received a 10 year sentence for opposing the war, and Socialist Victor Berger was denied his Congressional seat twice.
Schenck v United States In 1919, the Supreme Court heard the case of Socialist Charles Schenck who publicly urged draftees to resist the draft. Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. determined that his prosecution was not unconstitutional because of the special circumstances of war. He established that Free Speech had limits: … “ create a clear and present danger to the safety of the country.” Charles Schenck Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.
Wilson’s 14 points In his 14 points Woodrow Wilson articulated all of these as his Post War goals: Creation of A League of Nations to guarantee mutual protection of political & territorial rights Freedom of Navigation on the Seas & Arms Reduction Removal of Trade Barriers The Right to National Self Determination No secret Alliances In his 14 points Woodrow Wilson articulated all of these as his Post War goals: Creation of A League of Nations to guarantee mutual protection of political & territorial rights Freedom of Navigation on the Seas & Arms Reduction Removal of Trade Barriers The Right to National Self Determination No secret Alliances
VERSAILLES TREATY At Versailles The “Big Four” were in attendance England, France, Italy & United States… Japan was allowed to come and watch, But conspicuous in their Absence was all of the Central Powers and Soviet Russia. Neither was allowed to attend. Most of Wilson’s 14 points failed to get by the European leaders. Free Trade Freedom of the seas failed. Among his major goals that did get into the treaty were the League of Nations and Self determination of the newly independent nations. At Versailles The “Big Four” were in attendance England, France, Italy & United States… Japan was allowed to come and watch, But conspicuous in their Absence was all of the Central Powers and Soviet Russia. Neither was allowed to attend. Most of Wilson’s 14 points failed to get by the European leaders. Free Trade Freedom of the seas failed. Among his major goals that did get into the treaty were the League of Nations and Self determination of the newly independent nations.
Perhaps the Biggest error in the treaty of Versailles was the French demand that the Germans take the blame for the war and make compensation for it. the “War Guilt” Clause made English Economist, John Maynard Keynes,walk away from the Versailles support team predicting another war in 20 years.
Wilson, believing in his righteousness, also failed to include any prominent Republicans on his negotiating team, So when it was time to ratify the Treaty in the Senate, he had to face the “Irreconcilables”, led by Progressives such as Hiram Johnson, William Borah, & Robert Lafollette, all of whom rejected the treaty because it supported the imperialistic goals of European nations.
Then there were the Republicans, such as Henry Cabot Lodge who would have signed on to the treaty if some modifications had been made… The biggest offense was Article X, which limited Congress’s Constitutional power to Declare War. Wilson was unwilling to compromise. An Ailing Wilson ordered democrats to vote against all Republican Amendments, so the Treaty would never be ratified and the U.S. would never join the League of nations.
During the war a large segment of the African American population had migrated North, and this flared up racial tensions in the North. Exacerbated by the fact that African American soldiers came home from the war expecting to be treated like citizens, and they were met with more violence in the north and South. 78 Lynchings in 1919 in the South with many blacks lynched in their Uniforms,25 major riots in Northern cities.
To keep their Wartime gains, more than 4 million Union workers went on strike in 1919, but the vast public still associated unions with radicals. When the Boston Police went on strike, Governor Calvin Coolidge said, “ There is no right to strike against public safety by anybody, anywhere, any time.” and he fired the entire Police Force. The Public support for his action was so great, he was rewarded with the Vice Presidency of the U.S. In 1920.
The Bolshevik revolution in Russia and the establishment of the 3 rd Comintern in 1919, had the effect of creating a Red Scare in America. In the Spring of 1919 a series of bombings, and 34 mail bombs were discovered before they ignited, but Americas began to associate all radicalism with violence. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer had a bomb explode outside of his home found this as an issue that could put him in the Whitehouse. The Palmer Raids began on suspected radicals and immigrants were deported. Palmer claimed that on May Day radicals would attempt to overthrow the government, and put the Militia and police on 24 hour alert…. Nothing happened on that day.
In May of 1920 two Radical Italian Immigrants, Nicola Sacco & Bartolemeo Vanzetti were arrested for Robbery & Murder & Judge Webster Thayer presided over their case with considerable prejudice, and the two were found guilty and on death row for 6 years while supporters fought for their appeals. The question of their guilt is still debated, but most historians agree they did not get a fair trial because of their status as Radical immigrants.