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Biology Semester Exam Review Fall 2010. What major improvement came with the development of the scanning electron microscope? a.Magnets were replaced.

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Presentation on theme: "Biology Semester Exam Review Fall 2010. What major improvement came with the development of the scanning electron microscope? a.Magnets were replaced."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biology Semester Exam Review Fall 2010

2 What major improvement came with the development of the scanning electron microscope? a.Magnets were replaced with lighter materials. b.It produced images with better color. c.The magnification was higher. d.The images were three dimensional.

3 What major improvement came with the development of the scanning electron microscope? a.Magnets were replaced with lighter materials. b.It produced images with better color. c.The magnification was higher. d.The images were three dimensional.

4 A scientist at the polar ice cap was studying an ice sample from hundred of meters below the surface. While examining the ice, the scientist found some cells from many years ago. Using an electron microscope, the scientist identified these cell structures: a cytoskeleton, mitochondrion, nucleus, cell wall, and ribosomes. What kind of organism did the scientist find? a.animalc.plant b.bacteriad.He did not have enough information.

5 A scientist at the polar ice cap was studying an ice sample from hundred of meters below the surface. While examining the ice, the scientist found some cells from many years ago. Using an electron microscope, the scientist identified these cell structures: a cytoskeleton, mitochondrion, nucleus, cell wall, and ribosomes. What kind of organism did the scientist find? a.animalc.plant b.bacteriad.He did not have enough information.

6 At what point in the process of diffusion is dynamic equilibrium reached? a.when the movement of the molecules stops being random b.when the molecules are mixed and stop moving c.when the rate of change in the solution slows by one half d.when there is continuous movement but no change

7 At what point in the process of diffusion is dynamic equilibrium reached? a.when the movement of the molecules stops being random b.when the molecules are mixed and stop moving c.when the rate of change in the solution slows by one half d.when there is continuous movement but no change

8 During photosynthesis light energy is converted to the energy in chemical bonds. What also happens according to the predictions of the second law of thermodynamics? a.chemical energy is converted to light energy b.matter is lost in the process c.heat is released in the process d.the light and chemical energy are equal

9 During photosynthesis light energy is converted to the energy in chemical bonds. What also happens according to the predictions of the second law of thermodynamics? a.chemical energy is converted to light energy b.matter is lost in the process c.heat is released in the process d.the light and chemical energy are equal

10 What is a major difference between facilitated diffusion and active transport? a.Active transport moves substances against the concentration gradient. b.Active transport uses proteins in the process. c.Facilitated diffusion moves molecules through the plasma membrane. d.Facilitated diffusion requires large amounts of energy.

11 What is a major difference between facilitated diffusion and active transport? a.Active transport moves substances against the concentration gradient. b.Active transport uses proteins in the process. c.Facilitated diffusion moves molecules through the plasma membrane. d.Facilitated diffusion requires large amounts of energy.

12 What types of materials are expelled from cells during exocytosis? a.large molecules such as hormones b.positive and negative ions c.small molecules such as carbon dioxide d.water and glycerol

13 What types of materials are expelled from cells during exocytosis? a.large molecules such as hormones b.positive and negative ions c.small molecules such as carbon dioxide d.water and glycerol

14 Which of the following is an example of passive transport? a.endocytosis b.facilitated diffusion c.exocytosis d.Na + /K + ATPase pump

15 Which of the following is an example of passive transport? a.endocytosis b.facilitated diffusion c.exocytosis d.Na + /K + ATPase pump

16 Nutrients and oxygen move from where they are in a greater concentration in blood to where they are lesser concentrated in cells. Which term correctly identifies the process by which nutrients and oxygen enter cells? a.active transport b.passive transport c.respiration d.photosynthesis

17 Nutrients and oxygen move from where they are in a greater concentration in blood to where they are lesser concentrated in cells. Which term correctly identifies the process by which nutrients and oxygen enter cells? a.active transport b.passive transport c.respiration d.photosynthesis

18 Which statement is a fundamental principle of the cell theory? a.All cells have a plasma membrane. b.Eukaryotic cells are larger than prokaryotic cells. c.Living organisms are composed of cells. d.The genetic material in cells is DNA.

19 Which statement is a fundamental principle of the cell theory? a.All cells have a plasma membrane. b.Eukaryotic cells are larger than prokaryotic cells. c.Living organisms are composed of cells. d.The genetic material in cells is DNA.

20 Which organelle converts sugars into energy? a.lysosome b.nucleus c.mitochondrion d.ribosome

21 Which organelle converts sugars into energy? a.lysosome b.nucleus c.mitochondrion d.ribosome

22 Which cellular organelle is surrounded by a double membrane, contains DNA and is responsible for converting inorganic compounds into organic compounds with the use of light energy? a.mitochondria b.chloroplast c.centriole d.nucleus

23 Which cellular organelle is surrounded by a double membrane, contains DNA and is responsible for converting inorganic compounds into organic compounds with the use of light energy? a.mitochondria b.chloroplast c.centriole d.nucleus

24 Which of the following correctly sequences the steps of the scientific method? a.question, observe, explain, design and conduct experiment, collect and analyze data, report findings b.observe, question, make a testable explanation, experiment, collect and analyze data, state findings c.form a hypothesis, observe, investigate a testable question, collect and analyze data, state results d.design and conduct an investigation based on a testable question, form a hypothesis, collect data, state findings

25 Which of the following correctly sequences the steps of the scientific method? a.question, observe, explain, design and conduct experiment, collect and analyze data, report findings b.observe, question, make a testable explanation, experiment, collect and analyze data, state findings c.form a hypothesis, observe, investigate a testable question, collect and analyze data, state results d.design and conduct an investigation based on a testable question, form a hypothesis, collect data, state findings

26 Students in a biology class ran an experiment on a type of flowering plant. Their goal was to find the optimal time in the plant's life for flowering. What time period will provide the most flowering plants? Use Table 1-1 to determine your answer. Table 1-1 DayNumber of Plants Flowering a.5–6 daysc.7–8 days b.6–7 daysd.8–9 days

27 Students in a biology class ran an experiment on a type of flowering plant. Their goal was to find the optimal time in the plant's life for flowering. What time period will provide the most flowering plants? Use Table 1-1 to determine your answer. Table 1-1 DayNumber of Plants Flowering a.5–6 daysc.7–8 days b.6–7 daysd.8–9 days

28 In the grocery store, vegetables are sprayed with a mist of water by a timed sprayer. This allows water to move into the cells of the vegetables to keep them crisp so that they look fresh to the customers. The water moves into the cells of the vegetables by which of the following processes? a.active transport b.facilitated diffusion c.osmosis d.gated channels

29 In the grocery store, vegetables are sprayed with a mist of water by a timed sprayer. This allows water to move into the cells of the vegetables to keep them crisp so that they look fresh to the customers. The water moves into the cells of the vegetables by which of the following processes? a.active transport b.facilitated diffusion c.osmosis d.gated channels

30 The organelles labeled “A” above are partially synthesized in the nucleus, can be found attached to the endoplasmic reticulum or in long chains in the cytosol, and play an important role in the synthesis of proteins in both plant and animal cells. Which organelles are they? a.lysosomesc.mitochondria b.ribosomesd.centrioles

31 The organelles labeled “A” above are partially synthesized in the nucleus, can be found attached to the endoplasmic reticulum or in long chains in the cytosol, and play an important role in the synthesis of proteins in both plant and animal cells. Which organelles are they? a.lysosomesc.mitochondria b.ribosomesd.centrioles

32 Which organic compounds have binding sites and are responsible for helping to regulate movement of materials across cell membranes that are too large to pass on their own? a.carbohydrates b.lipids c.nucleic acids d.proteins

33 Which organic compounds have binding sites and are responsible for helping to regulate movement of materials across cell membranes that are too large to pass on their own? a.carbohydrates b.lipids c.nucleic acids d.proteins

34 What results from the removal of a phosphate group from ATP? a.the production of mechanical energy b.the release of energy c.the creation of energy d.the absorption of energy by chlorophyll

35 What results from the removal of a phosphate group from ATP? a.the production of mechanical energy b.the release of energy c.the creation of energy d.the absorption of energy by chlorophyll

36 The energy acquired in photosynthesis is used to make glucose. Where is the glucose made in plants? a.in the thylakoid b.in the stroma c.in the thylakoid membrane d.outside the chloroplast

37 The energy acquired in photosynthesis is used to make glucose. Where is the glucose made in plants? a.in the thylakoid b.in the stroma c.in the thylakoid membrane d.outside the chloroplast

38 Which of the following metabolic pathways is anabolic? a.photosynthesis b.breakdown of actin in muscles c.respiration d.alcohol fermentation

39 Which of the following metabolic pathways is anabolic? a.photosynthesis b.breakdown of actin in muscles c.respiration d.alcohol fermentation

40 What is the role of oxygen in cellular respiration? a.It provides electrons for the electron transport chain. b.It combines with carbon monoxide to form carbon dioxide. c.It is needed for the production of light and heat. d.It is the final electron acceptor for the electron transport chain.

41 What is the role of oxygen in cellular respiration? a.It provides electrons for the electron transport chain. b.It combines with carbon monoxide to form carbon dioxide. c.It is needed for the production of light and heat. d.It is the final electron acceptor for the electron transport chain.

42 Which process changes a chlorine atom into a chloride ion? A. Electron gain B. Electron loss C. proton gain D. proton loss

43 Which process changes a chlorine atom into a chloride ion? A. Electron gain B. Electron loss C. proton gain D. proton loss

44 Within a single water molecule, what type of bond joins the hydrogen and oxygen atoms? A. An ionic bond B. a covalent bond C. a hydrogen bond D. An adhesive bond

45 Within a single water molecule, what type of bond joins the hydrogen and oxygen atoms? A. An ionic bond B. a covalent bond C. a hydrogen bond D. An adhesive bond

46 Hank is performing a simulation in class. Hank hypothesizes that if potato cubes are placed in solutions with different concentrations of sugar molecules, then the potato cube in the solution with the highest concentraion of sugar molecules will show the greatest change in mass. Hank prepares four different solutions with four different concentrations of sugar and puts a potato cube in each of them. His results are shown above. What cellular activity is Hank modeling? A. Active transportB. osmosis c. DNA replicationD. hydration Concentration of Sugar Solution (M) Initial Mass of Potato (g) Final Mass of Potato (g) Percentage Change in Mass % % % %

47 Hank is performing a simulation in class. Hank hypothesizes that if potato cubes are placed in solutions with different concentrations of sugar molecules, then the potato cube in the solution with the highest concentraion of sugar molecules will show the greatest change in mass. Hank prepares four different solutions with four different concentrations of sugar and puts a potato cube in each of them. His results are shown above. What cellular activity is Hank modeling? A. Active transportB. osmosis c. DNA replicationD. hydration Concentration of Sugar Solution (M) Initial Mass of Potato (g) Final Mass of Potato (g) Percentage Change in Mass % % % %

48 How do the isotopes of hydrogen differ? A. the number of protons B. the number of energy levels C. the number of electrons D. the number of neutrons

49 How do the isotopes of hydrogen differ? A. the number of protons B. the number of energy levels C. the number of electrons D. the number of neutrons

50 Coffee has a pH of about 5. Coffee is ____. a.extremely acidic b.somewhat acidic c.extremely basic d.somewhat basic

51 Coffee has a pH of about 5. Coffee is ____. a.extremely acidic b.somewhat acidic c.extremely basic d.somewhat basic

52 Which of the following substances are biological catalysts that speed up the rate of chemical reactions in biological processes? A. catalyst B. protein C. enzyme D. substrate

53 Which of the following substances are biological catalysts that speed up the rate of chemical reactions in biological processes? A. catalyst B. protein C. enzyme D. substrate

54 Which describes the activities of a cell that include cellular growth and cell division? A. chromatin B. cytoplasm C. mitosis D. cell cycle

55 Which describes the activities of a cell that include cellular growth and cell division? A. chromatin B. cytoplasm C. mitosis D. cell cycle

56 What is the role of cyclins in a cell? A. to control the movement of microtubules. B. to signal the cell to divide C. to stimulate the breakdown of the nuclear membrane. D. to cause the nucleolus to disappear

57 What is the role of cyclins in a cell? A. to control the movement of microtubules. B. to signal the cell to divide C. to stimulate the breakdown of the nuclear membrane. D. to cause the nucleolus to disappear

58 Figure 6-1. Which of the atoms pictured in Figure 6-1 is most likely to form an ion? a.C b.Na c.O d.they are all equally likely to form an ion

59 Figure 6-1. Which of the atoms pictured in Figure 6-1 is most likely to form an ion? a.C b.Na c.O d.they are all equally likely to form an ion

60 Which substance has at least one ionic bond? a.CH 4 b.NaCl c.H 2 O d.O 2

61 Which substance has at least one ionic bond? a.CH 4 b.NaCl c.H 2 O d.O 2

62 Consider the energy diagram for a chemical reaction in Figure 6-3. Overall, is energy released or absorbed? a.absorbed, because the energy level increases during the reaction b.absorbed, because the energy level of the products is greater than that of the reactants c.released, because the reaction is initiated by the addition of heat d.released because the energy level of the reactants is greater than that of the products

63 Consider the energy diagram for a chemical reaction in Figure 6-3. Overall, is energy released or absorbed? a.absorbed, because the energy level increases during the reaction b.absorbed, because the energy level of the products is greater than that of the reactants c.released, because the reaction is initiated by the addition of heat d.released because the energy level of the reactants is greater than that of the products

64 How does an enzyme influence a biological reaction? a.It increases the net energy difference between reactants and products. b.It decreases the activation energy necessary to initiate the chemical change. c.It increases the kinetic energy of reactants, thereby increasing their tendency to collide. d.It decreases the kinetic energy of reactants, enabling them to undergo chemical change more easily.

65 How does an enzyme influence a biological reaction? a.It increases the net energy difference between reactants and products. b.It decreases the activation energy necessary to initiate the chemical change. c.It increases the kinetic energy of reactants, thereby increasing their tendency to collide. d.It decreases the kinetic energy of reactants, enabling them to undergo chemical change more easily.

66 When added to water, how does an acid affect the pH and H + concentration? a.Both pH and H + decrease. b.Both pH and H + increase. c.The pH decreases while the H + increases. d.The pH increases while the H + decreases.

67 When added to water, how does an acid affect the pH and H + concentration? a.Both pH and H + decrease. b.Both pH and H + increase. c.The pH decreases while the H + increases. d.The pH increases while the H + decreases.

68 Glycogen, used to store energy in the liver and muscle tissue, is an example of which type of molecule? a.carbohydrate b.saturated fatty acid c.protein d.steroid

69 Glycogen, used to store energy in the liver and muscle tissue, is an example of which type of molecule? a.carbohydrate b.saturated fatty acid c.protein d.steroid

70 Which of the following is a substrate used in cellular respiration. a.carbon dioxide b.the product of photosynthesis c.rubisco d.ion channels

71 Which of the following is a substrate used in cellular respiration. a.carbon dioxide b.the product of photosynthesis c.rubisco d.ion channels

72 Which of the following is an accurate description of how structure enhances function in the thylakoid? a.Thylakoid membranes have a large surface area that provides the space needed to hold large numbers of electron-transporting molecules. b.Thylakoid membranes serve as an impermeable surface that prevents the flow of electrons into the stroma. c.Thylakoid membranes can open and close depending on humidity to prevent evaporation from the cell. d.Thylakoid membranes act as an oxygen barrier allowing the aerobic steps of photosynthesis to proceed.

73 Which of the following is an accurate description of how structure enhances function in the thylakoid? a.Thylakoid membranes have a large surface area that provides the space needed to hold large numbers of electron-transporting molecules. b.Thylakoid membranes serve as an impermeable surface that prevents the flow of electrons into the stroma. c.Thylakoid membranes can open and close depending on humidity to prevent evaporation from the cell. d.Thylakoid membranes act as an oxygen barrier allowing the aerobic steps of photosynthesis to proceed.

74 Figure 9-2 Which of the cells depicted in the line graph in Figure 9-2 are most likely cancerous? a.Ac.C b.Bd.D

75 Figure 9-2 Which of the cells depicted in the line graph in Figure 9-2 are most likely cancerous? a.Ac.C b.Bd.D

76 Which of the following does not occur as a cell grows larger and larger in size? a.difficulty obtaining nutrients b.difficulty eliminating wastes c.ratio of surface area to volume increases d.diffusion across the cell membrane is impaired

77 Which of the following does not occur as a cell grows larger and larger in size? a.difficulty obtaining nutrients b.difficulty eliminating wastes c.ratio of surface area to volume increases d.diffusion across the cell membrane is impaired

78 Why is the synthesis stage called this? a.because protein synthesis is taking place b.because DNA synthesis is taking place c.because it combines several smaller stages into one d.because the chromosomes come together

79 Why is the synthesis stage called this? a.because protein synthesis is taking place b.because DNA synthesis is taking place c.because it combines several smaller stages into one d.because the chromosomes come together

80 The cell cycle is regulated by a.cyclins b.hormones c.enzymes d.sugars

81 The cell cycle is regulated by a.cyclins b.hormones c.enzymes d.sugars

82 True or False? An ionic bond is formed when two atoms share electrons.

83

84 True or False? Diffusion over large distances is slow and inefficient because it relies on random movement of molecules and ions.

85


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