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THE CELL THEORY All living things are made of cells.

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Presentation on theme: "THE CELL THEORY All living things are made of cells."— Presentation transcript:

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3 THE CELL THEORY

4 All living things are made of cells.

5 Cells come from other cells.

6 The parts of a cell act like the organs of the body. That is why they are called organelles (little organs).

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9 Cells are surrounded by a cell membrane. It surrounds the cell to protect it and allows some materials to enter and leave the cell.

10 Cell membrane

11 The jellylike stuff in the cell is called the cytoplasm

12 Cell membrane Cytoplasm

13 Cells have a nucleus. Surrounding the nucleus is the nuclear membrane. Inside the nucleus are the chromosomes (DNA, genes). The chromosomes control the rest of the cell and pass on characteristics to the offspring.

14 Cell membrane Nucleus DNA Cytoplasm

15 The endoplasmic reticulum, abbreviated ER, carries material through the cell. Sometimes it has ribosomes (rough ER) and sometimes it doesn’t have ribosomes (smooth ER).

16 Cell membrane Nucleus DNA Cytoplasm Endoplasmic reticulum

17 The ribosomes make the proteins that the cell needs. They make what the DNA tells them to make.

18 Cell membrane Nucleus DNA Cytoplasm Endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes

19 The Golgi bodies are flattened sacs where the proteins that the ribosomes made are put together so that they can be used by the cell.

20 Cell membrane Nucleus DNA Cytoplasm Endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes Golgi body

21 The lysosomes contain digestive enzymes that break down worn-out cell parts, food that the cell has taken in, or invaders like bacteria.

22 Cell membrane Nucleus DNA Cytoplasm Endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes Golgi body E Lysosome

23 Vacuoles hold stuff for the cell. They can hold water, food, or anything that the cell takes in.

24 Cell membrane Nucleus DNA Cytoplasm Endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes Golgi body E Lysosome Vacuole Vacuolar membrane

25 The mitochondria get the food that has already been broken into small pieces by the lysosomes. The mitochondria break all the rest of the bonds.

26 Remember, when a bond is broken, energy is released. The mitochondria are called the “Powerhouses” of the cell because they give the cell its energy.

27 Cell membrane Nucleus DNA Cytoplasm Endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes Golgi body E Lysosome Vacuole Vacuolar membrane Mitochondria

28 Animal cells have two centrioles. These work when the cell divides.

29 Cell membrane Nucleus DNA Cytoplasm Endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes Golgi body E Lysosome Vacuole Vacuolar membrane Mitochondria Centrioles

30 Cilia are short, hairlike structures used for movement. There are usually many cilia. Animal cells have many different methods of movement.

31 Cell membrane Nucleus DNA E Cytoplasm Endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes Golgi body Lysosome Vacuole Vacuolar membrane Mitochondria Cilia Centrioles

32 Flagella are long, whiplike tails used for movement. There are usually only a few flagella on a cell.

33 Cell membrane Nucleus DNA E Cytoplasm Endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes Golgi body Lysosome Vacuole Vacuolar membrane Mitochondria Flagella Centrioles

34 Plant cells are rectangular. When you look at plant cells under a microscope, they look like a brick wall.

35 Plant cells have a cell wall which surrounds the cell membrane. They also have chloroplasts which give the plant its green color and lets the plant make food.

36 Chloroplasts trap light energy and put it into bonds. That is how energy gets into our food.

37 Cell membrane DNA Nucleus Cytoplasm Endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes Golgi body Lysosome Vacuole Vacuolar membrane Mitochondria E Cell Wall E Chloroplasts

38 E 1. Type of cell (dots) 7. (maze) (line) (circle) 14. (line) 15. (little pieces) 16.

39 E 17. Type of cell 6. (dots) 7. (maze) (green) (inside line) What is in #10?


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