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Chapter 7:Part Il Organelles Big Idea The eukaryotic cell contains organelles that allow the specialization and the separation of functions within the.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7:Part Il Organelles Big Idea The eukaryotic cell contains organelles that allow the specialization and the separation of functions within the."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapter 7:Part Il Organelles

3 Big Idea The eukaryotic cell contains organelles that allow the specialization and the separation of functions within the cell The eukaryotic cell contains organelles that allow the specialization and the separation of functions within the cell

4 3 Animal Cell Organelles Nucleolus Nucleus Nuclear envelope Ribosome (attached) Ribosome (free) Cell Membrane Rough endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Mitochondrion Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Centrioles copyright cmassengale

5 4 Plant Cell Organelles copyright cmassengale

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7 Cellular Anatomy We’ll start by seeing what role these parts play in making and moving proteins.

8 1.Cell Nucleus Directs the cell’s activities Directs the cell’s activities Contains DNA and RNA Contains DNA and RNA Surrounded by a double Membrane (nuclear membrane, nuclear envelope) Surrounded by a double Membrane (nuclear membrane, nuclear envelope)

9 The Nucleus Think of the nucleus as the cell’s control center. Two meters of human DNA fits into a nucleus that’s meters across.

10 Cell Nucleus continued a. nuclear pores -Holes in the nuclear membrane that allows RNA to leave a. nuclear pores -Holes in the nuclear membrane that allows RNA to leave

11 b. Nucleolus – Round structure inside the nucleus, makes ribosomes b. Nucleolus – Round structure inside the nucleus, makes ribosomes

12 2.Forms of DNA a. Chromatin – DNA in a cell that is not dividing a. Chromatin – DNA in a cell that is not dividing

13 b. Chromosomes – Coiled DNA found in dividing cells b. Chromosomes – Coiled DNA found in dividing cells

14 DNA is Condensed into Visible Chromosomes Only For Brief Periods in the Life of a Cell 95% of the time, chromosomes are like this. Easily visible chromosomes are apparent perhaps 5% of the time in an actively growing cell and less in a non-growing cell.

15 3. Ribosomes Small round structure that makes protein (including enzymes) Small round structure that makes protein (including enzymes)

16 Ribosomes and the Endoplasmic Reticulum

17 Ribosomes Continued a. free ribosomes – floating in the cytoplasm, produce proteins used within the cell a. free ribosomes – floating in the cytoplasm, produce proteins used within the cell

18 b. Attached ribosomes – attached to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), produce proteins to be used outside the cell b. Attached ribosomes – attached to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), produce proteins to be used outside the cell

19 4. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Resembles a canal, moves substances within the cell, can be used for storage and the location of chemical reactions. Resembles a canal, moves substances within the cell, can be used for storage and the location of chemical reactions.

20 The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Protein movement (trafficking) Protein synthesis (about half the cell’s proteins are made here). Protein “proofreading” Functions:

21 (ER) Continued a. rough ER – covered with ribosomes a. rough ER – covered with ribosomes b. smooth ER – few or no ribosomes b. smooth ER – few or no ribosomes

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23 5.Golgi apparatus (golgi bodies) Looks like a bunch of folded membranes Looks like a bunch of folded membranes

24 Golgi continued Processes, packages, and secretes substances out to other parts of the cell Processes, packages, and secretes substances out to other parts of the cell

25 24 Golgi Animation Materials are transported from Rough ER to Golgi to the cell membrane by VESICLES copyright cmassengale

26 6. Vesicle/Vacuole Storage sac for substances being sent out by the golgi. Storage sac for substances being sent out by the golgi.

27 26 Have a large central vacuole Surrounded by tonoplast Contains cell sap Sugars, proteins, minerals, wastes, & pigments Plant Cell Organelles Vacuole

28 27 mitochondrion nucleus glycogen granule cell membrane cytoplasm Animal cell No cell wall or chloroplast Stores glycogen in the cytoplasm for food energy vacuole

29 7.Mitochondria Hot dog shaped, powerhouse of the cell Hot dog shaped, powerhouse of the cell a. chemical reactions in the mitochondria release energy. a. chemical reactions in the mitochondria release energy.

30 Mitochondria Continued b. Two membranes surround it. b. Two membranes surround it. –1. smooth outer membrane separates the mitochondria from the cytoplasm

31 Mitochondria continued  2. Inner folded membrane (cristae) – enlarges the surface area so more energy can be made.

32 Mitochondria continued C. Numerous and can reproduce themselves. C. Numerous and can reproduce themselves. D. Produces ATP (energy) D. Produces ATP (energy)

33 The Mitochondrion Think of the mitochondrion as the powerhouse of the cell. Both plant and animal cells contain many mitochondria. (Mitochondria is the plural of mitochondrion)

34 33 Interesting Fact --- Mitochondria Come from cytoplasm in the EGG cell during fertilization Mitochondria Come from cytoplasm in the EGG cell during fertilization Therefore … Therefore … You inherit your mitochondria from your mother ! You inherit your mitochondria from your mother ! copyright cmassengale

35 8.Lysosomes Round organelle that contains enzymes that digest unwanted food particles and other debris. Round organelle that contains enzymes that digest unwanted food particles and other debris.

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37 The Lysosome Cell suicide (suicide is bad for cells, but good for us!) Recycling cellular components Functions: Digesting food or cellular invaders (The lysosome is not found in plant cells)

38 9.Microtubles and Microfilaments Give the cell support and shape, forms the cytoskeleton or framework of the cell. Give the cell support and shape, forms the cytoskeleton or framework of the cell.

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40 39 Cytoskeleton MICROTUBULES MICROFILAMENTS copyright cmassengale

41 10.Centrioles Cylinder shaped structures, helps in cell division, plant cells do not have centrioles. Cylinder shaped structures, helps in cell division, plant cells do not have centrioles.

42 41 Animal Cell Organelles Near the nucleus Near the nucleus Paired structures Paired structures Help cell divide Help cell divide

43 11.Cilia and Flagella Structures that extend from the cell and help in movement or feeding. Structures that extend from the cell and help in movement or feeding. Cilia and Flagella Paramecium cilia

44 Cilia and Flagella continued a. cilia- short, hair- like, move liquids such as mucus past the cell or moves unicellular organisms. a. cilia- short, hair- like, move liquids such as mucus past the cell or moves unicellular organisms.

45 Cilia and Flagella continued b. Flagella- whip like, longer than cilia, moves cells such as the human sperm. b. Flagella- whip like, longer than cilia, moves cells such as the human sperm.

46 Cells are Us Cilia on a protozoan Sperm meets egg

47 46 Cilia Moving Away Dust Particles from the Lungs Respiratory System copyright cmassengale

48 12. Additional Plant Cell Organelles a.Cell wall – surrounds the cell membrane, adds strength to the cell, and protects the cell, made of cellulose a.Cell wall – surrounds the cell membrane, adds strength to the cell, and protects the cell, made of cellulose

49 Plant Cell Organelles Continued b.Vacuoles – fluid filled cavity which contains enzymes, waste, and poison, largest organelle in the plant cell. b.Vacuoles – fluid filled cavity which contains enzymes, waste, and poison, largest organelle in the plant cell.

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51 The Central Vacuole Controls Turgor Pressure flaccid turgid

52 Plant Cell Organelles Continued c. Plastids – store food and pigments. c. Plastids – store food and pigments.

53 13.Plastids a.Chloroplast – contain green pigment chlorophyll used to absorb sunlight. a.Chloroplast – contain green pigment chlorophyll used to absorb sunlight.

54 Animal vs. Plant Cells – Chloroplasts Are a Big Part of the Difference

55 The Chloroplast Think of the chloroplast as the solar panel of the plant cell. Only plants have chloroplasts, but animals reap the benefits too.

56 Plastids continued b. Chromoplast – makes and stores orange, red, and yellow pigments. b. Chromoplast – makes and stores orange, red, and yellow pigments.

57 c. Leucoplast (colorless pigments) – stores food such as starches, proteins, and lipids. c. Leucoplast (colorless pigments) – stores food such as starches, proteins, and lipids.

58 Two Other Unique Features of Plant Cells The central vacuole may occupy 90% of a plant cell.

59 58 Different kinds of animal cells white blood cell red blood cell cheek cells sperm nerve cell muscle cell Amoeba Paramecium

60 59 Similarities between plant cells and animal cells Both have a cell membrane surrounding the cytoplasm Both have a nucleus Both contain mitochondria

61 60 Differences between plant cells and animal cells Animal cellsPlant cells Relatively smaller in size Irregular shape No cell wall Relatively larger in size Regular shape Cell wall present

62 1- Nucleus 2- Chromosomes 3- Mitochondria 4- Ribosomes 5- Chloroplasts 6- Vacuoles 7- ER 8- Cell Membrane

63 Chapter 7 Part II Chapter 7 Part II Organelles Organelles Produced by Produced by Rodney Rodney Raford Raford Bell Bell


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