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Basic Structure of a Cell CELL THEORY All living things are made of cells Cells are the basic unit of structure and function Cells come from the reproduction.

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Presentation on theme: "Basic Structure of a Cell CELL THEORY All living things are made of cells Cells are the basic unit of structure and function Cells come from the reproduction."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Basic Structure of a Cell

3 CELL THEORY All living things are made of cells Cells are the basic unit of structure and function Cells come from the reproduction of existing cells (cell division)

4 Two Main Types of Eukaryotic Cells Plant Cell Animal Cell

5 Different kinds of animal cells white blood cell red blood cell cheek cells sperm nerve cell muscle cell Amoeba Paramecium

6 Examples of Animal Cells Muscle cellsRed blood cells Cheek cells

7 Cell or Plasma Membrane (2,5) Cell membrane Proteins Protein channel Lipid bilayer Composed of double layer of phospholipids and proteins Surrounds outside of ALL cells Controls what enters or leaves the cell – selectively permeable

8 Jelly-like substance Found in ALL cells Contains organelles Provides a place for chemical reactions to take place Cytoplasm

9 Controls the activities of the cell Contains DNA in chromosomes Genes control cell characteristics Nucleus (12,15)

10 Nuclear Envelope/Membrane Double membrane surrounding nucleus Contains nuclear pores for materials to enter & leave nucleus Nuclear pores

11 Inside the Nucleus (14,16) The genetic material (DNA) is found DNA is spread out And appears as CHROMATIN in non-dividing cells DNA is condensed & wrapped around proteins forming as CHROMOSOMES in dividing cells

12 Nucleolus (13,14) Inside nucleusInside nucleus Makes ribosomes that make proteinsMakes ribosomes that make proteins

13 Endoplasmic Reticulum - ER Two kinds of ER ---ROUGH & SMOOTH Connects to nuclear envelope & cell membrane Functions in Synthesis of cell products & Transport

14 Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough ER) (11,11) Has ribosomes on its surface –Makes membrane proteins –TRANSPORT proteins out of cell

15 Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (7,1) Smooth ER lacks ribosomes –Makes membrane lipids (steroids) –Regulates calcium (muscle cells) –Detoxic substances (Liver)

16 Ribosomes (10,10) Made of PROTEINS “Protein factories” for cell Join amino acids to make proteins Process called protein synthesis 

17 Ribosomes Can be attached to Rough ER OR Be free (unattached) in the cytoplasm

18 Golgi Bodies (8,12) Stacks of flattened sacs (PANCAKES)Stacks of flattened sacs (PANCAKES) Modify, sort, & package molecules for storage OR transport out of cell Vesicles pinch off the endsVesicles pinch off the ends vesicle CIS TRANS

19 Golgi Animation Materials are transported from Rough ER to Golgi to the cell membrane by VESICLES

20 Lysosomes (3,7) Contain digestive enzymesContain digestive enzymes Break down food, bacteria, and worn out cell partsBreak down food, bacteria, and worn out cell parts

21 Cytoskeleton (5,6) Helps cell maintain cell shape Also help move organelles around Made of proteins –Ex. Microfilaments –Ex. Microtubules

22 Mitochondrion (plural = mitochondria) (4,3) “Powerhouse” of the cell Generate cellular energy (ATP) Site of CELLULAR RESPIRATION Has its own DNA What kind of cells would have MORE mitochondria?

23 What do mitochondria do? Burns glucose to release energy (ATP) Stores energy as ATP “Power plant” of the cell

24 Cilia & Flagella Function in moving cells and movement of particles across a membrane Cilia -short and many (spirit fingers) Flagella - longer and fewer (ex sperm tail)

25 Cell Movement with Cilia & Flagella

26 Cilia Moving Away Dust Particles from the Lungs Respiratory System

27 Centrioles (1) Found only in animal cells Made of bundle of microtubules Appear during cell division Help to pull chromosomes apart

28 Centrioles & the Mitotic Spindle

29 Vacuoles (8) Storage of wastes, water, and nutrients Small or absent in animal cells Plant cells have a large Central Vacuole No vacuoles in bacterial cells

30 Plant Cell

31 Different kinds of plant cells Onion Epidermal Cells Root Hair Cell root hair Guard Cells

32 Examples of Plant cells Xylem cells Pollen Guard Cells

33 Cell Wall (4) Supports and protects cell Found outside of the cell membrane Found in plants, fungi, & bacteria cellulose in plants peptidoglycan in bacteria chitin in Fungi

34 Chloroplasts (9) Plant cells ONLY Contain chlorophyll Photosynthesis – (energy from sunlight makes food (glucose) Contains its own DNA

35 Differences between plant cells and animal cells Animal cellsPlant cells Irregular shape No cell wall Regular shape Cell wall present No chloroplast Have chloroplast Vacuole small or absent Large central vacuole Glycogen as food storage Starch as food storage

36 Hk&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yu21ShnKh Hk&feature=related

37 Cell Types Cells can only be observed under microscope Three Basic types of cells include: Animal CellPlant Cell Bacterial Cell

38 Number of Cells Although ALL living things are made of cells, organisms may be: Unicellular – composed of one cell Multicellular - composed of many cells that may organize into tissues, etc.

39 Prokaryotes Cells that lack a nucleus or membrane- bound organelles –Nucleoid region (center) contains the DNA –Single, circular chromosome Surrounded by cell membrane & cell wall Contain ribosomes E.x. bacteria

40 Eukaryotes Cells that HAVE a nucleus and membrane- bound organelles Contain 3 basic cell structures: Nucleus Cell Membrane Cytoplasm with organelles E.x. protists, fungi, plants, and animals

41 CELL SIZE

42 Which Cell Type is Larger? _________ > _____________ > ___________ Plant cellAnimal cellbacteria

43 Cell Size Question: Are the cells in an elephant bigger, smaller, or about the same size as those in a mouse?

44 Factors Affecting Cell Size Surface area (plasma membrane surface) is determined by multiplying length times width (L x W) Volume of a cell is determined by multiplying length times width times height (L x W x H) Therefore, Volume increases FASTER than the surface area

45 Cell Size When the surface area is no longer great enough to get rid of all the wastes and to get in enough food and water, then the cell must divide Therefore, the cells of an organism are close in size

46 Cell Size Question: Are the cells in an elephant bigger, smaller, or about the same size as those in a mouse? About the same size, but … The elephant has MANY MORE cells than a mouse!


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