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Eukaryotic Cell Structure. Cell Wall Found in cells of plants, fungi, bacteria, and some protists. Found in cells of plants, fungi, bacteria, and some.

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Presentation on theme: "Eukaryotic Cell Structure. Cell Wall Found in cells of plants, fungi, bacteria, and some protists. Found in cells of plants, fungi, bacteria, and some."— Presentation transcript:

1 Eukaryotic Cell Structure

2 Cell Wall Found in cells of plants, fungi, bacteria, and some protists. Found in cells of plants, fungi, bacteria, and some protists. Fairly rigid structure found outside the cell membrane. Fairly rigid structure found outside the cell membrane.

3 Cell Wall Provides additional support and protection. Provides additional support and protection. Cell walls in plants are very porous which allows molecules to pass through (not selective). Cell walls in plants are very porous which allows molecules to pass through (not selective).

4 Nucleus Contains strands of DNA called chromatin. Contains strands of DNA called chromatin. When the cell divides, chromatin condenses to form chromosomes. When the cell divides, chromatin condenses to form chromosomes. Controls the activity of organelles by controlling protein production. Controls the activity of organelles by controlling protein production. Contains an organelle called the nucleolus which makes ribosomes. Contains an organelle called the nucleolus which makes ribosomes.

5 Ribosomes Where proteins are made. Where proteins are made. Has no membrane. Has no membrane. Formed of RNA and proteins. Formed of RNA and proteins. During protein synthesis, ribosomes and RNA translated from DNA leave the nucleus through the nuclear envelope and enter the cytoplasm During protein synthesis, ribosomes and RNA translated from DNA leave the nucleus through the nuclear envelope and enter the cytoplasm

6 Nuclear Envelope Separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm. Separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm. Double membrane. Double membrane. Made up of two phospholipid bilayers containing small nuclear pores for substances to pass through. Made up of two phospholipid bilayers containing small nuclear pores for substances to pass through.

7 Cytoplasm Clear, gelatinous fluid inside a cell. Clear, gelatinous fluid inside a cell. Suspends organelles such as ER, golgi apparatus, vacuoles, lysosomes, chloroplasts, plastids, mitochondria, and centrioles. Suspends organelles such as ER, golgi apparatus, vacuoles, lysosomes, chloroplasts, plastids, mitochondria, and centrioles.

8 Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Site of cellular chemical reactions. Site of cellular chemical reactions. Arranged in a series of highly folded membranes. Arranged in a series of highly folded membranes. These folds allow a large amount of ER to do work in a small amount of space. These folds allow a large amount of ER to do work in a small amount of space.

9 Rough ER vs Smooth ER Rough ER Rough ER Areas of ER where ribosomes are attached to the surface and carry out protein synthesis. Areas of ER where ribosomes are attached to the surface and carry out protein synthesis. Smooth ER Smooth ER Areas of the ER not studded with ribosomes. Areas of the ER not studded with ribosomes. Involved in numerous biochemical activities, including production and storage of lipids. Involved in numerous biochemical activities, including production and storage of lipids.

10 Golgi Apparatus Flattened stack of tubular membranes that modify proteins. Flattened stack of tubular membranes that modify proteins. After proteins are made by ribosomes, they are transferred to the golgi apparatus. After proteins are made by ribosomes, they are transferred to the golgi apparatus.

11 Golgi Apparatus Sorts proteins into packages and then packs them into membrane-bound structures called vesicles to be sent to the appropriate destination. Sorts proteins into packages and then packs them into membrane-bound structures called vesicles to be sent to the appropriate destination.

12 Vacuoles Membrane bound compartments or sacs. Membrane bound compartments or sacs. Temporarily store materials such as food, wastes, and enzymes. Temporarily store materials such as food, wastes, and enzymes. Not usually present in animal cells. Not usually present in animal cells. When they are present in animal cells, they are very small. When they are present in animal cells, they are very small.

13 Lysosomes Organelles that contain digestive enzymes. Organelles that contain digestive enzymes. Digest worn-out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses and bacteria. Digest worn-out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses and bacteria. Has a membrane which prevents the digestive enzymes from destroying the cell. Has a membrane which prevents the digestive enzymes from destroying the cell.

14 Lysosomes Can fuse with vacuoles and dispense enzymes into the vacuole, digesting its contents. Can fuse with vacuoles and dispense enzymes into the vacuole, digesting its contents. Sometimes lysosomes digest the cells that contain them as in the case of a tadpole tail. Sometimes lysosomes digest the cells that contain them as in the case of a tadpole tail.

15 Chloroplasts Located in the cells of green plants and some protists. Located in the cells of green plants and some protists. Capture light energy and convert it into chemical energy. Capture light energy and convert it into chemical energy. Store the chemical energy in bonds of sugar molecules. Store the chemical energy in bonds of sugar molecules. Belong to a group of plant organelles called plastids. Belong to a group of plant organelles called plastids.

16 Chloroplasts Has a double membrane. Has a double membrane. Inner membranes are called thylakoid membranes and are arranged in stacks of membranous sacs called grana which trap sunlight. Inner membranes are called thylakoid membranes and are arranged in stacks of membranous sacs called grana which trap sunlight. Fluid that surrounds the stacks of grana is called stroma. Fluid that surrounds the stacks of grana is called stroma.

17 Plastids Store materials such as starches, lipids, and pigments. Store materials such as starches, lipids, and pigments. Named according to their color or the pigment they contain. Named according to their color or the pigment they contain. Chloroplasts contain the green pigment chlorophyll which traps light energy. Chloroplasts contain the green pigment chlorophyll which traps light energy.

18 Mitochondria Membrane bound organelles in plant and animal cells which transform energy for the cell. Membrane bound organelles in plant and animal cells which transform energy for the cell. Have an outer membrane and highly folded inner membrane where energy storing molecules are produced. Have an outer membrane and highly folded inner membrane where energy storing molecules are produced. Energy is then stored in bonds of other molecules that cell organelles can access easily and quickly when energy is needed. Energy is then stored in bonds of other molecules that cell organelles can access easily and quickly when energy is needed.

19 Cytoskeleton Network of tiny rods and filaments. Network of tiny rods and filaments. Microtubules Microtubules Thin hollow cylinders made of protein. Thin hollow cylinders made of protein. Microfilaments Microfilaments Smaller solid protein fibers. Smaller solid protein fibers.

20 Cytoskeleton Forms a framework or structure for the cell. Forms a framework or structure for the cell. Can be dismantled in one place and reassembled somewhere else in the cell, changing the cells shape. Can be dismantled in one place and reassembled somewhere else in the cell, changing the cells shape.

21 Cytoskeleton Anchors and supports many organelles. Anchors and supports many organelles. Provides a highway system through which materials move within the cell. Provides a highway system through which materials move within the cell.

22 Centrioles Found in cells of animals and most protists. Found in cells of animals and most protists. Occur in pairs. Occur in pairs. Made up of microtubules. Made up of microtubules. Play an important role in cell division. Play an important role in cell division.

23 Cilia and Flagella Organelles made of microtubules. Organelles made of microtubules. Aid in locomotion and/or feeding. Aid in locomotion and/or feeding. Major means of locomotion in single celled organisms. Major means of locomotion in single celled organisms.

24 Cilia and Flagella Cilia Cilia Short, numerous projections that look like hairs. Short, numerous projections that look like hairs. Motion similar to oars in a rowboat. Motion similar to oars in a rowboat.

25 Cilia and Flagella Flagella Flagella Long projections. Long projections. Move with a whip-like motion. Move with a whip-like motion. Cells usually only have one or two. Cells usually only have one or two.


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