Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Fig. 6-1. Key Cell Concepts Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions The eukaryotic cell′s genetic instructions.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Fig. 6-1. Key Cell Concepts Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions The eukaryotic cell′s genetic instructions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fig. 6-1

2 Key Cell Concepts Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions The eukaryotic cell′s genetic instructions are housed in the nucleus and carried out by the ribosomes The endomembrane system regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell Mitochondria and chloroplasts change energy from one form to another The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers that organizes structures and activities in the cell Extracellular components and connections between cells help coordinate cellular activities

3 Overview: The Fundamental Units of Life All organisms are made of cells The cell is the simplest collection of matter that can live Cell structure is correlated to cellular function All cells are related by their descent from earlier cells Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

4 Concept 6.2: Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions The basic structural and functional unit of every organism is one of two types of cells: prokaryotic or eukaryotic Only organisms of the domains Bacteria and Archaea consist of prokaryotic cells Protists, fungi, animals, and plants all consist of eukaryotic cells Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

5 Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Basic features of all cells: – Plasma membrane – Semifluid substance called cytosol – Chromosomes (carry genes) – Ribosomes (make proteins) Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

6 Prokaryotic cells are characterized by having – No nucleus – DNA in an unbound region called the nucleoid – No membrane-bound organelles – Cytoplasm bound by the plasma membrane Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

7 Fig. 6-6 Fimbriae Nucleoid Ribosomes Plasma membrane Cell wall Capsule Flagella Bacterial chromosome (a)A typical rod-shaped bacterium (b)A thin section through the bacterium Bacillus coagulans (TEM) 0.5 µm

8 Eukaryotic cells are characterized by having – DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope – Membrane-bound organelles – Cytoplasm in the region between the plasma membrane and nucleus Eukaryotic cells are generally much larger than prokaryotic cells Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

9 The plasma membrane is a selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and waste to service the volume of every cell The general structure of a biological membrane is a double layer of phospholipids Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

10 Fig. 6-7 TEM of a plasma membrane (a) (b) Structure of the plasma membrane Outside of cell Inside of cell 0.1 µm Hydrophilic region Hydrophobic region Hydrophilic region PhospholipidProteins Carbohydrate side chain

11 The logistics of carrying out cellular metabolism sets limits on the size of cells The surface area to volume ratio of a cell is critical As the surface area increases by a factor of n 2, the volume increases by a factor of n 3 Small cells have a greater surface area relative to volume Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

12 Fig. 6-8 Surface area increases while total volume remains constant Total surface area [Sum of the surface areas (height  width) of all boxes sides  number of boxes] Total volume [height  width  length  number of boxes] Surface-to-volume (S-to-V) ratio [surface area ÷ volume]

13 A Panoramic View of the Eukaryotic Cell A eukaryotic cell has internal membranes that partition the cell into organelles Plant and animal cells have most of the same organelles BioFlix: Tour Of An Animal Cell BioFlix: Tour Of An Animal Cell BioFlix: Tour Of A Plant Cell BioFlix: Tour Of A Plant Cell Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

14 Fig. 6-9a ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER) Smooth ERRough ER Flagellum Centrosome CYTOSKELETON: Microfilaments Intermediate filaments Microtubules Microvilli Peroxisome Mitochondrion Lysosome Golgi apparatus Ribosomes Plasma membrane Nuclear envelope Nucleolus Chromatin NUCLEUS

15 Fig. 6-9b NUCLEUS Nuclear envelope Nucleolus Chromatin Rough endoplasmic reticulum Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes Central vacuole Microfilaments Intermediate filaments Microtubules CYTO- SKELETON Chloroplast Plasmodesmata Wall of adjacent cell Cell wall Plasma membrane Peroxisome Mitochondrion Golgi apparatus

16 Concept 6.3: The eukaryotic cell’s genetic instructions are housed in the nucleus and carried out by the ribosomes The nucleus contains most of the DNA in a eukaryotic cell Ribosomes use the information from the DNA to make proteins Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

17 The Nucleus: Information Central The nucleus contains most of the cell’s genes and is usually the most conspicuous organelle The nuclear envelope encloses the nucleus, separating it from the cytoplasm The nuclear membrane is a double membrane; each membrane consists of a lipid bilayer Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

18 Fig Nucleolus Nucleus Rough ER Nuclear lamina (TEM) Close-up of nuclear envelope 1 µm 0.25 µm Ribosome Pore complex Nuclear pore Outer membrane Inner membrane Nuclear envelope: Chromatin Surface of nuclear envelope Pore complexes (TEM)

19 Pores regulate the entry and exit of molecules from the nucleus The shape of the nucleus is maintained by the nuclear lamina, which is composed of protein Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

20 In the nucleus, DNA and proteins form genetic material called chromatin Chromatin condenses to form discrete chromosomes The nucleolus is located within the nucleus and is the site of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

21 Ribosomes: Protein Factories Ribosomes are particles made of ribosomal RNA and protein Ribosomes carry out protein synthesis in two locations: – In the cytosol (free ribosomes) – On the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum or the nuclear envelope (bound ribosomes) Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

22 Fig Cytosol Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Free ribosomes Bound ribosomes Large subunit Small subunit Diagram of a ribosome TEM showing ER and ribosomes 0.5 µm

23 Concept 6.4: The endomembrane system regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell Components of the endomembrane system: – Nuclear envelope – Endoplasmic reticulum – Golgi apparatus – Lysosomes – Vacuoles – Plasma membrane These components are either continuous or connected via transfer by vesicles Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

24 The Endoplasmic Reticulum: Biosynthetic Factory The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) accounts for more than half of the total membrane in many eukaryotic cells The ER membrane is continuous with the nuclear envelope There are two distinct regions of ER: – Smooth ER, which lacks ribosomes – Rough ER, with ribosomes studding its surface Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

25 Fig Smooth ER Rough ER Nuclear envelope Transitional ER Rough ER Smooth ER Transport vesicle Ribosomes Cisternae ER lumen 200 nm

26 Functions of Smooth ER The smooth ER – Synthesizes lipids – Metabolizes carbohydrates – Detoxifies poison – Stores calcium Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

27 Functions of Rough ER The rough ER – Has bound ribosomes, which secrete glycoproteins (proteins covalently bonded to carbohydrates) – Distributes transport vesicles, proteins surrounded by membranes – Is a membrane factory for the cell Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

28 The Golgi apparatus consists of flattened membranous sacs called cisternae Functions of the Golgi apparatus: – Modifies products of the ER – Manufactures certain macromolecules – Sorts and packages materials into transport vesicles The Golgi Apparatus: Shipping and Receiving Center Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

29 Fig cis face (“receiving” side of Golgi apparatus) Cisternae trans face (“shipping” side of Golgi apparatus) TEM of Golgi apparatus 0.1 µm

30 Lysosomes: Digestive Compartments A lysosome is a membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that can digest macromolecules Lysosomal enzymes can hydrolyze proteins, fats, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids Animation: Lysosome Formation Animation: Lysosome Formation Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

31 Some types of cell can engulf another cell by phagocytosis; this forms a food vacuole A lysosome fuses with the food vacuole and digests the molecules Lysosomes also use enzymes to recycle the cell’s own organelles and macromolecules, a process called autophagy Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

32 Fig Nucleus 1 µm Lysosome Digestive enzymes Lysosome Plasma membrane Food vacuole (a) Phagocytosis Digestion (b) Autophagy Peroxisome Vesicle Lysosome Mitochondrion Peroxisome fragment Mitochondrion fragment Vesicle containing two damaged organelles 1 µm Digestion

33 Fig. 6-14a Nucleus 1 µm Lysosome Digestive enzymes Plasma membrane Food vacuole Digestion (a) Phagocytosis

34 Fig. 6-14b Vesicle containing two damaged organelles Mitochondrion fragment Peroxisome fragment Peroxisome Lysosome Digestion Mitochondrion Vesicle (b) Autophagy 1 µm

35 Vacuoles: Diverse Maintenance Compartments A plant cell or fungal cell may have one or several vacuoles Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

36 Food vacuoles are formed by phagocytosis Contractile vacuoles, found in many freshwater protists, pump excess water out of cells Central vacuoles, found in many mature plant cells, hold organic compounds and water Video: Paramecium Vacuole Video: Paramecium Vacuole Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

37 Fig Central vacuole Cytosol Central vacuole Nucleus Cell wall Chloroplast 5 µm

38 The Endomembrane System: A Review The endomembrane system is a complex and dynamic player in the cell’s compartmental organization Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

39 Fig Smooth ER Nucleus Rough ER Plasma membrane

40 Fig Smooth ER Nucleus Rough ER Plasma membrane cis Golgi trans Golgi

41 Fig Smooth ER Nucleus Rough ER Plasma membrane cis Golgi trans Golgi

42 Concept 6.5: Mitochondria and chloroplasts change energy from one form to another Mitochondria are the sites of cellular respiration, a metabolic process that generates ATP Chloroplasts, found in plants and algae, are the sites of photosynthesis Peroxisomes are oxidative organelles Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

43 Mitochondria and chloroplasts – Are not part of the endomembrane system – Have a double membrane – Have proteins made by free ribosomes – Contain their own DNA Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

44 Mitochondria: Chemical Energy Conversion Mitochondria are in nearly all eukaryotic cells They have a smooth outer membrane and an inner membrane folded into cristae The inner membrane creates two compartments: intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix Some metabolic steps of cellular respiration are catalyzed in the mitochondrial matrix Cristae present a large surface area for enzymes that synthesize ATP Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

45 Fig Free ribosomes in the mitochondrial matrix Intermembrane space Outer membrane Inner membrane Cristae Matrix 0.1 µm

46 Chloroplasts: Capture of Light Energy The chloroplast is a member of a family of organelles called plastids Chloroplasts contain the green pigment chlorophyll, as well as enzymes and other molecules that function in photosynthesis Chloroplasts are found in leaves and other green organs of plants and in algae Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

47 Chloroplast structure includes: – Thylakoids, membranous sacs, stacked to form a granum – Stroma, the internal fluid Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

48 Fig Ribosomes Thylakoid Stroma Granum Inner and outer membranes 1 µm

49 Peroxisomes: Oxidation Peroxisomes are specialized metabolic compartments bounded by a single membrane Peroxisomes produce hydrogen peroxide and convert it to water Oxygen is used to break down different types of molecules Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

50 Fig µm Chloroplast Peroxisome Mitochondrion

51 Concept 6.6: The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers that organizes structures and activities in the cell The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm It organizes the cell’s structures and activities, anchoring many organelles It is composed of three types of molecular structures: – Microtubules – Microfilaments – Intermediate filaments Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

52 Fig Microtubule Microfilaments 0.25 µm

53 Roles of the Cytoskeleton: Support, Motility, and Regulation The cytoskeleton helps to support the cell and maintain its shape It interacts with motor proteins to produce motility Inside the cell, vesicles can travel along “monorails” provided by the cytoskeleton Recent evidence suggests that the cytoskeleton may help regulate biochemical activities Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

54 Fig Vesicle ATP Receptor for motor protein Microtubule of cytoskeleton Motor protein (ATP powered) (a) MicrotubuleVesicles (b) 0.25 µm

55 Components of the Cytoskeleton Three main types of fibers make up the cytoskeleton: – Microtubules are the thickest of the three components of the cytoskeleton – Microfilaments, also called actin filaments, are the thinnest components – Intermediate filaments are fibers with diameters in a middle range Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

56 Table 6-1a 10 µm Column of tubulin dimers Tubulin dimer   25 nm

57 Table 6-1b Actin subunit 10 µm 7 nm

58 Table 6-1c 5 µm Keratin proteins Fibrous subunit (keratins coiled together) 8–12 nm

59 Cilia and Flagella Microtubules control the beating of cilia and flagella, locomotor appendages of some cells Cilia and flagella differ in their beating patterns Video: Chlamydomonas Video: Chlamydomonas Video: Paramecium Cilia Video: Paramecium Cilia Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

60 Fig µm Direction of swimming (a) Motion of flagella Direction of organism’s movement Power strokeRecovery stroke (b) Motion of cilia 15 µm

61 The Extracellular Matrix (ECM) of Animal Cells Animal cells lack cell walls but are covered by an elaborate extracellular matrix (ECM) The ECM is made up of glycoproteins such as collagen, proteoglycans, and fibronectin ECM proteins bind to receptor proteins in the plasma membrane called integrins Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

62 Fig. 6-30a Collagen Fibronectin Plasma membrane Proteoglycan complex Integrins CYTOPLASM Micro- filaments EXTRACELLULAR FLUID

63 Functions of the ECM: – Support – Adhesion – Movement – Regulation Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

64 Intercellular Junctions Neighboring cells in tissues, organs, or organ systems often adhere, interact, and communicate through direct physical contact Intercellular junctions facilitate this contact There are several types of intercellular junctions – Plasmodesmata – Tight junctions – Desmosomes – Gap junctions Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

65 Plasmodesmata in Plant Cells Plasmodesmata are channels that perforate plant cell walls Through plasmodesmata, water and small solutes (and sometimes proteins and RNA) can pass from cell to cell Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

66 Fig Interior of cell 0.5 µm PlasmodesmataPlasma membranes Cell walls

67 Tight Junctions, Desmosomes, and Gap Junctions in Animal Cells At tight junctions, membranes of neighboring cells are pressed together, preventing leakage of extracellular fluid Desmosomes (anchoring junctions) fasten cells together into strong sheets Gap junctions (communicating junctions) provide cytoplasmic channels between adjacent cells Animation: Tight Junctions Animation: Tight Junctions Animation: Desmosomes Animation: Desmosomes Animation: Gap Junctions Animation: Gap Junctions Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

68 Fig Tight junction 0.5 µm 1 µm Desmosome Gap junction Extracellular matrix 0.1 µm Plasma membranes of adjacent cells Space between cells Gap junctions Desmosome Intermediate filaments Tight junction Tight junctions prevent fluid from moving across a layer of cells

69 The Cell: A Living Unit Greater Than the Sum of Its Parts Cells rely on the integration of structures and organelles in order to function For example, a macrophage’s ability to destroy bacteria involves the whole cell, coordinating components such as the cytoskeleton, lysosomes, and plasma membrane Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

70 Fig µm

71 You should now be able to: 1.Distinguish between the following pairs of terms: magnification and resolution; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; free and bound ribosomes; smooth and rough ER 2.Describe the structure and function of the components of the endomembrane system 3.Briefly explain the role of mitochondria, chloroplasts, and peroxisomes 4.Describe the functions of the cytoskeleton Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

72 5.Compare the structure and functions of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments 6.Describe the structure and roles of the extracellular matrix in animal cells 7.Describe four different intercellular junctions Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings


Download ppt "Fig. 6-1. Key Cell Concepts Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions The eukaryotic cell′s genetic instructions."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google