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THE CELL. YOU MUST KNOW… THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF ORGANELLES COMMON TO PLANT AND ANIMAL.

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Presentation on theme: "THE CELL. YOU MUST KNOW… THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF ORGANELLES COMMON TO PLANT AND ANIMAL."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE CELL

2 YOU MUST KNOW… THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF ORGANELLES COMMON TO PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF ORGANELLES FOUND ONLY IN PLANT CELLS OR ONLY IN ANIMAL CELLS

3 CONCEPT 6.2 EUKARYOTIC CELLS HAVE INTERNAL MEMBRANES THAT COMPARTMENTALIZE THEIR FUNCTIONS

4 CHARACTERISTICSPROKARYOTIC CELLS EUKARYOTIC CELLS PLASMA MEMBRANEYES CYTOSOL WITH ORGANELLES YES RIBOSOMESYES NUCLEUSNOYES SIZE1 UM-10UM10 UM-100UM INTERNAL MEMBRANENOYES

5 CELLS PROKARYOTIC CELLS CONTAIN DOMAINS BACTERIA AND ARCHAEA EUKARYOTIC CELLS CONTAIN DOMAINS PROTISTS, FUNGI, PLANTS, ANIMALS

6 PROKARYOTES CHROMOSOMES ARE GROUPS TOGETHER IN A REGION CALLED THE NUCLEOID NO MEMBRANE-BOUND ORGANELLES ARE FOUND IN THE CYTOSOL

7 EUKARYOTES A MEMBRANE-ENCLOSED NUCLEUS CONTAINS THE CHROMOSOMES MANY MEMBRANE-BOUNDED ORGANELLES IN THE CYTOPLASM

8 PLASMA MEMBRANE FORMS THE BOUNDARY FOR A CELL SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE AND PERMITS THE PASSAGE OF MATERIALS INTO AND OUT OF THE CELL MADE OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS, PROTEINS, AND ASSOCIATED CARBOHYDRATES

9

10 NUCLEUS CONTAINS MOST OF THE CELL’S DNA DNA SERVES AS A TEMPLATE TO MAKE mRNA CONTROL CENTER OF THE CELL SURROUNDED BY THE NUCLEAR MEMBRANE, A DOUBLE MEMBRANE NUCLEAR ENVELOPE IS COUNTINUOUS WITH THE ROUGH E.R.

11 NUCLEUS CONTAINS NUCLEAR PORES THAT CONTROL WHAT ENTERS OR LEAVES THE NUCLEUS CHROMATIN IS THE COMPLEX OF DNA NUCLEOLUS IS THE REGION WHERE rRNA COMPLEXES WITH PROTEINS TO FORM RIBOSOMAL SUBUNITS

12 RIBOSOMES SITES OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS CONSIST OF A LARGE AND SMALL SUBUNIT AND MAY BE FREE FLOATING IN THE CYTOSOL (FOR MAKING PROTEINS FOR USE WITHIN THE CELL) OR ATTACHED TO ROUGH E.R. (WHEN MAKING PROTEINS FOR EXPORT OR USE IN THE CELL MEMBRANES)

13 E.R. NETWORK OF MEMBRANES AND SACS WHOSE INTERNAL AREA IS CALLED THE CISTERNAL SPACE 2 TYPES – SMOOTH AND ROUGH E.R.

14 SMOOTH E.R. 3 FUNCTIONS SYNTHESIS OF LIPIDS METABOLISM OF CARBOHYDRATES DETOXIFICATION OF DRUGS AND POISONS

15 ROUGH E.R. THE PROTEINS MADE IN THE RIBOSOMES ON THE ROUGH E.R. TRAVEL ACROSS THE E.R. MEMBRANE AND IN TO THE CISTERNAL SPACE PROTEINS ARE CONCENTRATED MORE BEFORE THEY ARE MOVED BY TRANSPORT VESICLE TO THE GOLGI APPARATUS FOR ADDITIONAL MODIFICATION

16 GOLGI APPARATUS PROTEINS ARE MODIFIED, STORED, AND SHIPPED HAVE POLARITY – THE CIS FACE RECEIVES VESICLES, THE TRANS FACE SHIPS VESICLES

17 MITOCHONDRIA SITE OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION ATP IS CREATED ENCLOSED BY A DOUBLE MEMBRANE, THE INNER MEMBRANE HAS INFOLDS CALLED CRISTAE

18 PEROXISOMES SINGLE MEMBRANE BOUND COMPARTMENTS RESPONSIBLE FOR VARIOUS METABOLIC FUNCTIONS THAT INVOLVE THE TRANSFER OF HYDROGEN FROM COMPOUNDS TO OXYGEN, PRODUCING H 2 O 2 BREAK DOWN F.A. TO BE SENT TO THE MITOCHONDRIA FOR FUEL AND DETOXIFY ALCOHOL BY TRANSFERRING HYDROGEN FROM THE POISON TO OXYGEN

19 CYTOSKELETON NETWORK OF PROTEIN FIBERS RESPONSIBLE FOR SUPPORT, MOTILITY, AND REGULATING SOME BIOCHEMICAL ACTIVITIES 3 TYPES – MICROTUBULES, MICROFILAMENTS, INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS

20 MICROTUBULES LARGEST OF THE FIBERS SHAPE AND SUPPORT THE CELL TRACKS FOR ORGANELLES TO MOVE SEPARATE CHROMOSOMES DURING MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS OF CILIA AND FLAGELLA

21 MICROFILAMENTS MADE OF THE PROTEIN ACTIN WHEN COUPLED WITH MYOSIN, IT CAUSES MOVEMENT EX. AMEBOID MOVEMENT, MUSCLE CONTRACTION

22 INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS MORE PERMANENT FIXTURES IN THE CELL HELP MAINTAIN SHAPE OF THE CELL VARY DEPENDING ON LOCATION AND FUNCTION

23 CENTROSOMES REGION NEAR THE NUCLEUS WHERE MICROTUBULES GROW CONTAIN CENTRIOLES IN ANIMAL CELLS

24 CELL STRUCTURES ASSOCIATED WITH ANIMAL CELLS ONLY

25 LYSOSOMES SACS OF HYDROLYTIC ENZYMES THAT CAN DIGEST LARGE MOLECULES INCLUDING PROTEIN, POLYSACCHARIDES, FATS, AND NUCLEIC ACIDS BREAK DOWN MACROMOLECULES TO ORGANIC MONOMERS THAT ARE RELEASED IN THE CYTOSOL AND RECYCLED BY THE CELL WORK BEST IN ACIDIC ENVIRONMENT

26 CENTRIOLES LOCATED WITHIN THE CENTROSOME WHERE THEY REPLICATE BEFORE CELL DIVISION

27 SPECIALIZED MICROTUBULES FLAGELLA - COMMON IN UNICELLULAR EUKARYOTIC ORGANISMS CILIA – SHORTER AND MORE NUMBEROUS, CAN BE USED IN LOCOMOTION OR MOVE OVER THE SURFACE OF THE TISSUE

28 COMMON ULTRASTRUCTURE CONTAIN 9 PAIRS OF MICROTUBULES SURROUNDING A CENTRAL CORE OF 2 MICROTUBULES ARRANGEMENT IS REFERRED TO AS THE “9+2 PATTERN”

29 EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX SITUATED JUST EXTERNAL TO PLASMA MEMBRANE COMPOSED OF GLYCOPROTEINS SECRETED BY THE CELL (COLLAGEN) STRENGTHENS TISSUES SERVES AS A CONDUIT FOR TRANSMITTING EXTERNAL STIMULI INTO THE CELL, TURNING ON GENES, MODIFYING BIOCHEMICAL ACTIVITY

30 INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS TIGHT JUNCTIONS – SECTIONS OF ANIMAL CELL MEMBRANE WHERE 2 NEIGHBORING CELLS ARE FUSED SO MEMBRANES BECOME WATER-TIGHT DESMOSOMES – FASTEN CELLS TOGETHER STRENGTHENING THEM GAP JUNCTIONS – PROVIDE CHANNELS BETWEEN ADJACENT ANIMAL CELLS WHERE IONS, SUGARS, AND OTHER SMALL MOLECULES CAN PASS

31 STRUCTURES ASSOCIATED WITH PLANT CELLS ONLY

32 CENTRAL VACUOLE STORES AND BREAKS DOWN SOME WASTE PRODUCTS IT CAN TAKE UP AS MUCH AS 80% OF THE CELL

33 CHLOROPLASTS FOUND IN PLANT AND ALGAE CELLS SITES OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS

34 CELL WALL PROTECTS THE PLANT AND HELPS MAINTAIN ITS SHAPE PRIMARY COMPONENT IS THE CARBOHYDRATE CELLULOSE

35 PLASMODESMATA CHANNELS THAT PERFORATE ADJACENT PLANT CELL WALLS AND ALLOW THE PASSAGE OF SOME MOLECULES FROM CELL TO CELL


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