We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byRonnie Griffith
Modified about 1 year ago
EUKARYOTE CELL ULTRASTRUCTURE
Primary Cell Structure That which can be seen using the light microscope © P Billiet © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Ultrastructure That which can be observed under the electron microscope
EUKARYOTE CELL ULTRASTRUCTURE 20 nm diameterProtein synthesisRibosome 26 to 56 nm thickSupport, Golgi apparatus synthesis Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Cisternae: 0.5µm thick, l-3µm diameter Secretion, reprocessing, lysosome synthesis Golgi apparatus 0.5 to 3.0 µm diameterDigestion, recycling & isolation Lysosome 5 to 10 µm diameterPhotosynthetic pathwaysChloroplast 1.0 to 12.5 µmRespiration pathwaysMitochondrion 10 µm diameterCell division, protein synthesis Nucleus DIMENSIONSMAIN FUNCTIONSORGANELLE © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
NUCLEUS (latin kernel) TEM Nucleus of a rat hepatocyte Image Credit:
NUCLEUS (pl nuclei) Usually spherical occupying up to 75% of the cell volume 10 µm © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
NUCLEUS Chemical composition Protein: Up to 90%, HISTONES rich in basic amino acids. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) about 20% (acidic) Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) 5 to 20% Nuclei usually contain about 10% CHROMATIN = Histone + DNA = NUCLEOPROTEIN. © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
NUCLEUS Functions Main site of DNA in eukaryotic cells Preservation, replication and expression of genetic information It makes RNA for protein synthesis It copies DNA for cell division © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
MITOCHONDRION (gk mitos = thread khondrion = granule) Image Credit: University of GeorgiaUniversity of Georgia TEM of mitochondrion from mouse kidney cell
MITOCHONDRION (pl. mitochondria) outer membrane inner membrane Mitochondrial envelope Inter membrane space Cristae Inner matrix 1.0 to 12.5 µm © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
MITOCHONDRION Pigments Cytochromes Functions The inner membrane contains the enzyme necessary for the synthesis of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) The mitochondria are closely associated with the pathways of respiration These metabolic pathways are divided up and supported by the membranes © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
CHLOROPLAST (Gk chloros = green plast = form or shape) Image Credit: University of WisconsinUniversity of Wisconsin TEM chloroplast
CHLOROPLAST outer membrane inner membrane Chloroplast envelope Starch grains Grana Frets Thylakoid membrane Stroma 5 to 10 µm © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
CHLOROPLAST Pigments Mainly chlorophylls with carotenoids and others Function: Photosynthesis The metabolic pathways are closely associated with the membranes as in the case of the mitochondrion © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Organelles and evolution Both chloroplasts and mitochondria are double membrane bound They involved in energy reactions They contain extranuclear DNA and characteristic small ribosomes of their own This has led biologists to believe that there may be some similarity in their origins in the cells of eukaryotes. The endosymbiotic theory © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
LYSOSOME Image Credit:
LYSOSOME Not discovered by electron microscopy but by centrifugation and enzyme analysis Some scientists suggest that they are not present in plant cells Structure: Simple, spherical, single membrane bound Lysosomes contain a large number of CATABOLIC enzymes. Catabolic enzymes digest materials by hydrolysis © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Enzymes found in lysosomes ENZYMESUBSTRATE Acid phosphatasePhosphate esters Acid ribonucleaseRNA Acid deoxyribonucleaseDNA GlycosidasesPolysaccharides ProteaseProteins and peptides LipaseLipids PhospholipasePhospholipids More than 40 types of enzymes are known to occur in lysosomes. © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
LYSOSOME Function Digestion of compounds taken in by the cell by endocytosis Recycling of material within the cell © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
GOLGI APPARATUS Image Credit: International Journal of MorphologyInternational Journal of Morphology
GOLGI APPARATUS Golgi vesicles transport the materials from one cisterna to the next Cisternae are flattened sacs Transport vesicles bring material from the endoplasmic reticulum to the entry face Golgi vesicles take transformed materials from the exit face to their destination © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
GOLGI APPARATUS Functions Processing and packaging Synthesising lysosomes to contain the potentially dangerous catabolic enzymes Producing secretory vesicles e.g. mucus Making more plasma membrane © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER) Image Credit:
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER) Rough ER Smooth ER Transport vesicles Lumen which can occupy up to 10% of the cell volume Membranes © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
ER Functions Not easy to study the ER is that it is difficult to extract intact ER starts the biosynthetic pathways form many protein and lipid molecules in the cell These continue in the Golgi apparatus Rough ER has ribosomes attached to it as opposed to Smooth ER The proteins are made on rough ER will eventually be secreted outside the cell © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
RIBOSOME Image Credit: Image Credit: British Society for Cell BiologyBritish Society for Cell Biology
RIBOSOME NOT membrane bound Found both in pro- and eukarotes The subunits are synthesised separately in the nucleolus of the nucleus of eukaryotes Large ribosome subunit Small ribosome subunit © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
RIBOSOME Distribution in the cytoplasm single free-floating attached to rough ER linked together as a POLYRIBOSOME or POLYSOME Function: Protein synthesis Chemical composition Protein + RNA in other words it is a nucleoprotein © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
The relationship between organelles Nucleus ER Golgi apparatus Lysosome Ribosomes Endocytosis Exocytosis © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Unit 2: The Cell KEY CONCEPT Eukaryotic cells share many similarities.
Introduction to Cells. Why does this cell look like a fried egg?
Chapter 7 A Tour of the Cell -- Part 1 TOPICS: How to study cells Eukaryotic vs Prokaryotic Nucleus and Ribosomes Endomembrane system Other membranous.
An Overview of the Cell With a focus on Plant and Animal Cell Structures.
Eukaryotic Cell Structure. Cell Wall Found in cells of plants, fungi, bacteria, and some protists. Found in cells of plants, fungi, bacteria, and some.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell.
Inside the World of Cells Unit 3: Cells Chapter 7: Cell Structure and Function Section 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Text: pages
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece.
Parts of the Cell. 4.4 Eukaryotic cells are partitioned into functional compartments There are four life processes in eukaryotic cells that depend upon.
Cell Structure and Function Chapter 6. Mid 1600s - Robert Hooke observed and described cells in cork Late 1600s - Antony van Leeuwenhoek observed sperm,
Chapter 6 A Tour of the Cell. You should be able to: 1.Distinguish between the following pairs of terms: magnification and resolution; prokaryotic and.
Chapter 6 and 7 AP Biology. Cells are the basic unit of structural and functional unit of living things. English scientist named Robert Hooke made a simple.
Organization of the Cell. Cell theory Cell theory Cells are the basic living units of organization and function Cells are the basic living units of organization.
Cell Discovery, Theory, & Organelles Direct Instruction Synthesize Notes on 26R.
Cell Organelles © J Beauchemin Cell Organelles Organelle= “little organ” Found only inside eukaryotic cells All the stuff in between the organelles.
The Cell Covers CA Standards 1c, 1f, 1g. Cell theory 1. Organisms composed of one or more cells 2. Cell is basic unit of organization 3. All cells come.
The Cell Leslie Gushwa and Josh Klock Cell Parts Cell Membrane, Cell Wall, CytoplasmCell Membrane, Cell Wall, Cytoplasm Protein Production - Nucleus,
Section 3: Cell Organelles The Nucleus: Eukaryotic cells (plant and animal cells) have a nucleus It is surrounded by a double membrane called the nuclear.
Biology AHSGE Standard IV- Cell Organelles. Biology AHSGE Biology Standard 4. Describe similarities and differences of cell organelles, using diagrams.
Claim: because extant organisms share processes and structures it indicates that they evolved from a common ancestor (similarity implies ancestry). Essential.
The Cell Factory. ORGANELLE is a specific structure of a cell having specialized functions. is a specific structure of a cell having specialized functions.cell.
Cell Structure & Function Chapter 7. The Discovery of the Cell Without a tool to make them visible cells were until the invention of the microscope 1665.
BIOLOGY CST Review PowerPoint Day 1: Standards. 1a -1h.
Eukaryotic Cell Structures & Functions Ch7.3 (Ch7 Vocabulary Guide)
CELL THEORY: 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. 3. All cells are produced.
Organelles What I Need To Know. Prokaryotes are very simple, single celled organisms. These cells have no nucleus, and very few organelles. They've got.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter.
Chapter 7- Cell Structure & Function. I. Life is Cellular A-The Discovery of the Cell It was not until the _________ that scientists began to use.
6.1 All organisms are made of cells. I. The Cell Theory A.In 1655 Robert Hooke observed compartments in a thin slice of cork which he named cells B.In.
BIOLOGY Topic 1. Topic Outline Cell Theory Cell Theory Prokaryotic Cells Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells Membranes Cell Division Cell.
© 2016 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.