Presentation on theme: "General Biology Lab Exam1 Review Covering Labs 1-5 10-15 questions from each lab."— Presentation transcript:
General Biology Lab Exam1 Review Covering Labs 1-5 10-15 questions from each lab
Scientific Method There is a systematic approach to science, a series of steps that must be followed by all scientists known as the scientific method. The basic steps are: 1. Observation of a problem 2. hypothesis formation- possible explanations 3. Experimentation- testing the question repeatedly 4. Conclusion
Lab 1 Null Hypothesis- is the hypothesis of “no difference”, it is explaining what is occurring in a properly designed controlled experiment where nothing has been manipulated so the conditions remain constant. Ex. There would be no difference or no statistically significant difference in the number of males and females being born in the U.S. this year. Since hypotheses are always written in pairs and in formal sentences or statements, we must also have an Alternate hypothesis to explain the experimental groups where variables are being applied and manipulated. Ex. Alternate hyp.: There is a difference in the number of males and females born in the U.S. this year.
Control group- the group that is left unchanged or un-manipulated Variable group- the experimental groups in which something (a factor) is manipulated and changed that might influence the outcome of the experiment
Ph- the measure of acidic and alkaline (how basic) a solution is. Ph scale ranges from 0-14, with 7 being neutral.
Chi-Square Statistic Observed Expected O E O-E O-E 2 O-E 2 /E Section 1_____________________________________________ Section 2_____________________________________________ Section 3_____________________________________________ Section 4_____________________________________________ * Total ______ Χ 2 = _______ Add up the last column * You must calculate a grand total of the observed values to find your Expected. Note E- expected is the average since the null hypothesis stated that all the numbers would be relatively the same.
Lab #1 Scientific Method To determine if you are going to accept or reject your Null hypothesis you must read a Chi-Square table to determine if the differences you found between your observed values and your expected values are far enough apart to be considered different and not the same or if they are within the accepted range to be considered not significantly different. Remember, your Expected values in the second column is the average so how far did the Observed values differ from the Expected? The larger the difference, the higher your chance of rejecting the null hypothesis and accepting the alternate hypothesis stating that there was a difference and that one of the variables had an effect.
Next, you must locate the column or probability level (p value) on the Chi- Square table that you are going to use that will correspond to the row you just found using the df. Most scientists use P=0.05 with an acceptable rate of error being 5% or less. If you then read the table using the appropriate df value and p value you will find the Critical Value or the C.V. which you can then use to compare with your calculated Chi-Square value. To use the Chi-Square table you must first locate the the row across the table that you are going to use. You do so by finding the degrees of freedom or df. This is always one less than the number of groups or categories tested. Df=n-1
Lab #2 Microscopes Know the labeled parts of the microscope and their basic functions. (All bold print terms in Lab #2) Microscope Diagram
Lab #2 Be able to calculate the total magnification if asked for any of the objectives. It is the ocular/eyepiece magnification of 10x multiplied by the individual lens/objective magnifications 4x, 10x, 40x, 100x.
Lab #2 Be able to calculate the size of a given microscope’s field of view- is the amount of the object that you see Ex. How many lines do you see in this space? I I I I 4 lines or 4mm How many cells could fit in the space occupied by those four lines? About 3 cells?
Lab #2 Now that you have measured the field of view. Review page 6 of Lab #2 for the measurements you found in class. 4x scanning 4-5 mm 10x low power 1.5-2 mm 40x high power 0.5 mm Now, given these field of view diameters be able to calculate the size of a cell. Use the formula diameter field of view number of cells So if using low power 10x to view the 3 cells we saw earlier how would you calculate their size? 2mm/3 cells=
What happens to the field of view (the amount of the object seen) as you increase in magnification? Yes, the object gets larger as magnification increases but the field of view or the actual overall amount of the object you see actually gets smaller. In class, you could not make out the letter “e” as you went up in magnification. What does the term parfocal mean? It means once you get an object in focus on scanning and/or low power it remains pretty much in focus as you move up to the higher powers with very little adjustment. Even focus at all magnifications.
Lab #2 State the two types of tissue we looked at. Human cheek epithelium- the tissue that lines the body cavity, inside the mouth, nose, esophagus, stomach, intestines. Onion and leaf epidermis- the tissue found covering the outer surface of plant leaves. Your epidermis is your skin.
Lab #2 Be able to list some differences between plant and animal cells. Animals- rounder, more irregular shaped, surrounded only by a thin plasma/cell membrane, often scattered in arrangement Plants- more rectangular, elongated, more regular often appearing in rows and columns. Having a thicker outer boundary composed of Both a cell wall and a plasma/cell membrane.
Lab #2 Human Cheek epithelium- Be able to recognize the cells and their structures- the nucleus, cell/plasma membrane, and cytoplasm.
Lab #2 Be able to recognize a typical plant cell, such as Anacharis. (Elodea). Be able to identify the cell wall,(Note: the cell/plasma membrane is located to the inside of the cell wall) the chloroplasts, cytoplasm, and central vacuole
Lab #2 Recognize the onion epidermis and the cell structures: nucleus, cytoplasm, cell wall.
Lab #2 What are some organelles that plants have that animal cells do not? Chloroplasts and central vacuoles Animal/Cheek Cells also lack a cell wall. Plant cells have BOTH a cell wall and a cell/plasma membrane
Lab #3 Eubacteria, Protista, Fungi Kingdom Monera was subdivided into two new kingdoms: Kingdom Archebacteria and K. Eubacteria. What is the major differences between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells? Prokaryotes lack a true membrane bound nucleus and membrane bound organelles. Bacteria are prokaryotes. What are some ways to identify bacteria? -shape- cocci (round), bacilli (rod), spirilla (spiral) Arrangement – staph (cluster), strep (chain)
Lab # 3 Protista Unicellular- single celled Eukaryotes- have true nucleus and membrane bound organelles Two types: heterotrophic(eat others), animal-like members are called the protozoans- the first animals Plant-like members of this Kingdom that are autotrophic (make their own food by photosynthesis) are algae.
Lab # 3 Protista Amoeba (notice you must either write this genus name in italics or capitalize and underline it)
Lab # 3 Protista Paramecium- moves using its cillia
Lab # 3 Protista Euglena- swims using its flagella. Has both plant and animal-like characteristics since it is both heterotrophic (eats) and autotrophic (makes its own food) using chloroplasts to photosynthesize
Lab # 3 Fungi Kindgom Fungi- mostly multicellular eukaryotes- reproduce both sexually and asexually by spores A unicellular example is Saccharomyces, commonly known as Yeast- Note the reproductive budding.
Lab # 3 Fungi Penicillium- is the genus of the mold that produces the antibiotic medicine Penicillin. Note the hyphal filaments and the round spores.
Lab #3 Fungi Mushrooms Note: cap with gills underneath that produce the spores, all held up by the stalk.
Lab #3 Fungi Shelf or Bracket Fungi- grow off of dead and decaying matter like old wood. They are decomposers helping to break down and recycle nutrients back into the soil.
Lab #3 Lichens Lichens are a symbiotic organism made of two distinct organisms living and sharing together. They are made of an algae and a fungus. The algae can photosynthesize and make food for the fungus. While, the fungus can provide a home and nutrients and water for the algae in return. They are often an indicator of air pollution and will not grow in polluted environments.
Lab #4 Plant Kingdom Who are the proposed ancestors to the Plants? The algae (Kingdom Protista) There are 4 major groups of plants we looked at in this lab. You must know examples, structures and characteristics for each group.
Lab #4 Plant Kingdom Bryophytes- mosses- capsule containing spores, leafy base and stalk.
Lab #4 Plant Kingdom Bryophytes- lack vascular tissue so they are small, low growing plants that live in moist environments. They require water for reproduction since they have motile sperm with flagella that swim over to the female structure for fertilization. They produce spores for reproduction (a primitive trait shared with the Fungi and Eubacteria)
Lab #3 Plant Kingdom Bryophytes- Liverworts Female gametophore (archegonium)- produces the eggs Male gametophore- (antheridium) produces the sperm Also has an asexual means of reproduction using gemmae cups that appear on the surface of the ribbon-like body or thallus
Lab #4 Plant Kingdom Ferns- have vascular tissue: xylem- transports water and phloem- transports food/sugar Still require water for reproduction Still produce the more primitive spores inside the sori
Gymnosperms Male cones- produce pollen which contains the sperm that will be carried by the wind to the female cones
Gymnosperms Female cones after fertilization by the male pollen/sperm develop the seeds or eggs. The cones mature and open up releasing the seeds to be dispersed by the wind.
Angiosperms Angiosperms are the flowering plants- they produce covered or protected seeds inside of a fruit.
Angiopserms Male Flower parts Female flower parts
Angiosperms Know the terms: radial (Like a wheel or pie- cutting into more than one equal piece) vs. bilateral symmetry- having only two equal sides when cut down the middle like mirror images. Incomplete vs. Complete flower- having all flower parts or missing one or more. Composite flower- made of more than one type of flower. Ex. Sunflowers, Daisy Mum- with ray and disk flowers Inflorescence- more than one flower grouped at the end of a single flower stem. Fruit- a mature ripened ovary containing fertilized seeds. Pollination- the transfer of the male pollen (sperm) to the female stigma for fertilization.
Lab #4 Plant Kingdom Monocot leaves- flower parts in 3’s and 6’s, parallel leaf veins
Lab #4 Plant Kingdom Dicot leaf- flower parts in 4’s and 5’s, netted or branched leaf veins
Lab #5 Animal Kingdom Who are the proposed ancestors to the animals? The protozoa (the unicellular animal-like members of the kingdom Protista) What is a phylogenetic tree? It is a tree based on shared characteristics or traits that groups of animals have in common that is supposed to show evolutionary relationships among and between the different groups.
Lab #5 Animal Kingdom Assymmetry- is the lack of a true body shape Ex. Sponges in the Phylum Proifera. Bilateral and Radial Symmetry
Lab #5 Animal Kingdom Protostomes- a type of embryonic development where the mouth is the first opening to form in the developing embryo and the second opening becomes the anus.
Lab #5 Animal Kingdom Deuterostomes- the second opening to form during embyronic development is the mouth and the first opening to appear becomes the anus.
Know the general characteristics for each of the nine phyla: Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Mollusca, Annelida, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and Chordata. Know representative examples for each phyla.
Porifera Sponges- asymmetrical filter feeders, mostly marine, sessile (non- moving), no mouth, no tissues, no digestive system. They trap and capture their food particles out of the water as it passes through their bodies using intracellular digestion.
Cnidaria Jellyfish and coral Hydra-polyp Medusa-jellyfish
Platyhelminthes Platy- “flaty”- flat bodies worms often with a distinctive head region (cephalization) Some free living like the Planaria Others parasitic like flukes and tapeworms
Nematoda Roundworms, smooth cylindrical body that narrows and tapers to pointy ends, often pink and fleshy colored, many parasitic species (hookworms, pinworms), some live in the soil.
Mollusca Snails are the gastropods, clams, oysters, mussels are the bivalves having two shells, and the cephalopods are the squid and ocutpus Many have a muscular foot, and rasping, file-like tongue called a radula
Arthropoda Jointed feet and segmented bodies Hard exoskeleton of chitin Know the classes: Class Crustacea- crabs, shrimp, lobster, crayfish. Class Arachnida- spiders, scorpions, ticks- have 8 legs Class Insecta- 6 legs- ants, butterflies, bees, wasps, beetles, crickets, grasshoppers Class Chilopoda- centipedes- 1 pair of legs per body segment- have venom glands, biting mouthparts, and often warning coloration on legs (bright yellow, oragne, or red) Class Diplopoda- millipedes- 2 pairs of legs per body segment- herbivores- eat plant material
Echinodermata This phylum contains the spiny or rough skinned animals like the sea star, sea urchin, sand dollar, sea cucumber. They have radial symmetry as adults but as larvae they are bilateral. They are Deuterostomes like the next Phylum Chordata and so they develop embryonically and structurally in a common pattern They have body parts in five repeating segments called penteramous- often these body parts can be regenerated when lost.
Chordata Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata Classes: Chondricthyes- cartilage fish- sharks, manta rays, devil rays, skates Class Osteicthyes- Bony Fish Class Amphibia- frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, mudpuppies- smooth often moist or mucous coated skin, reproduce in or near the water Class Reptilia- turtles, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, alligators, skinks, dinosaurs- rough, dry, scaly skin, more terrestrial Class Aves- birds Class Mammalia- mammals- have hair and give birth to live young fed and nourished by mammary glands