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Diversity of Modern Life
Kingdom Monera (Monerans) Smallest and simplest lifeforms Unicellular (one-celled) no nucleus Bacteria and cyanobacteria
Bacteria Three basic shapes: round (cocci) rod (bacilli) spiral (spirilli)
Questions What are two characteristics of the organisms in Kingdom Monera? What is meant by unicellular? What are the three shapes of bacteria?
Kingdom Protista(Protists) Single-celled or multicellular more complex than organisms in Kingdom Monera nucleus protozoans (animal-like) algae (plant-like)
Protozoans Kingdom Protista no cell wall or chlorophyll internal digestion no locomotion (some)
Algae Cell walls Chlorophyll Photosynthetic Placed in groups according to color and structure
Questions What are some characteristics of Protists? What are the two types of Protists? How are the two types of Protists different?
Kingdom Fungi Multicellular; complex cell walls, no chlorophyll Threadlike fungi (bread mold) club fungi (mushrooms) sac fungi (yeast and mildew)
Questions What are some characteristics of Fungi? What are the three groups of fungi?
Kingdom Plantae Multicellular, cell walls, and chlorophyll Largest and longest-living things on Earth Vascular or Nonvascular
Nonvascular Plants CANNOT conduct water Example: Moss Moist environment
Vascular Plants CAN conduct water Capable of living in drier areas Club mosses, Ferns, Horsetails, Gymnosperms, and Angiosperms
Gymnosperms Seed plant name means naked seed Most are conifers
Angiosperms -Flowering Plants Seed plant name means covered seed Seeds are produced inside ovaries A ripened ovary is a fruit largest/most diverse plants
Questions What is the major difference between a gymnosperm and an angiosperm? What are three plant characteristics? How are vascular and non vascular plants different?
Sponges (invertebrate) Simplest of the animal groups lives in salt water attached to the bottom Hollow central cavity Two layers of body cells with tiny pores
Coelenterates (invertebrate) Jellyfish, hydras, and corals two cell layers Live in water hollow body with a single opening
Questions What are three similarities between coelenterates and sponges?
Flatworms (invertebrate) Flattened body; mostly parasitic one body opening two eyespots (light detection) Turbellarians (free-living) Planarians (freshwater Turbellarians)
Roundworms (invertebrate) Rounded shaped two body openings (eating and waste expulsion) mostly free-living Ex: Nematodes and hookworms
Segmented Worms (invertebrate) Rounded, segmented bodies two body openings has five hearts and a brain Ex: leeches and marine tube worms
Questions In what major way are the three types of worms different? How are the segmented worms MOST similar to the roundworms?
Mollusks (invertebrate) Soft-bodies, no shell: (octopus/squid) well-developed organs some with shells: (clams/oysters)
Arthropods (invertebrate) Largest group of animals multiple body segments jointed appendages (legs/arms) exoskeleton (hard outer covering)
Arthropods (continued) Well-developed organs insects, lobsters, crabs, and spiders
Echinoderms (invertebrate) Spiny skinned animals star fish (sea stars), sand dollars, sea cucumbers flexible arms; tube feet known for regeneration (ability to grow new body parts)
Questions What is the major similarity between mollusks, echinoderms, and arthropods? Which group of organisms are known for regeneration? What is regeneration?
Questions What is the largest group of animals? Describe an invertebrate. An octopus and a clam belong to what group of invertebrates? How is an endoskelton different from an exoskeleton?
Vertebrates Have backbones body with a head and most have appendages endoskeleton (internal skeleton for support/protection)
Vertebrates (continued) Endotherm (warm- blooded); these organisms can control their body temperature from within despite changes in the environment
Vertebrates (continued) Ectotherm (cold-blooded); body temperature changes with the environment
Questions What is the difference between an ectotherm and an endotherm? How is a vertebrate different from an invertebrate?
Jawless fishes Ex: Sea lamprey mouth is used for sucking fluids; no appendages (fins) flexible skeleton made of cartilage ectotherms
Cartilaginous Fishes Two pairs of fins; gills ectotherms strong teeth (sharks) SKELETON MADE OF CARTILAGE stingrays, skates, sharks
Bony fishes Flounder, eels, trout, and others SKELETON MADE OF BONE gills streamlined bodies (narrow shape) most numerous group of fish
Questions How are the cartilaginous fishes mainly different from the bony fishes? What do the other fishes have that the jawless fishes do not have?
Amphibians Frogs, toads, salamanders part of their life is spent on land and part of life is spent in the water; (ectotherms) smooth, moist skin gills when they are young and have lungs as adults
Reptiles Adapted to live on land (terrestrial) breathe with lungs body covered with plates or scales ectotherms
Reptiles Dinosaurs Turtles, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, and alligators lay eggs in a leathery shell
Birds Bodies adapted for flight (light, bones, feathers, and wings) Scaly legs and feet lay eggs in a hard shell endotherms
Mammals Advanced nervous system; highly developed brain Endotherms Hairy bodies can occupy several habitats give birth to live young; produce milk mammary glands
Questions Which animals spend part of their life on and part of it in the water? What type of animals have scales or or hard plates?
Questions Which two groups of animals are warm-blooded? What is the difference between the eggs of reptiles and birds?
DIVERSITY IN LIVING ORGANISM S Basis of Classification Why do we classify things? * Classification provides scientists and students a way to sort and.
Kingdom Fungi Eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophic Used to be classified in the plant kingdom, but because they lack chlorophyll (dont photosynthesize),
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