2What are modal verbs? They are: Ought to Can Could May MightMustShallShouldWillWouldOught toThey are Auxiliary verbs that provide additional and specific meaning to the main verb of the sentenceModal verbs are sometimes referred to asModal Auxiliary verbs because they help other verbs
5Form Modal verbs do not have infinitives or –ing forms to can / caning to must /musting She must study We should have gone the other way He could play football in his youth (general ability)Modal verbs do not have infinitives or –ing formsModal verbs are followed by an infinitive without to
6Form Modal verbs do not have all the tenses Modal verbs use other verbs to complete the tensesCan is completed with be able toMust is completed with have toYou must come earlyThey can play the pianoThey will be able to play the piano in the futureYou had to come early yesterday
7What do they express?They can have different meanings depending on the situations they are usedTo understand it better we are going to divide them into 3 categoriesSingle Concept Modal: they have one meaningDouble Concept Modal: they have two meaningsModals in past: They are used to express a situation in the past
8Categories Should Ought to Had better May Might Must Would Shall Could Single concept ModalsDouble Concept ModalsModals in PastShouldOught toHad betterMayMightMustWouldShallCouldCanWillWould haveCould haveMight haveShould haveMay haveMust have
9Single Concept Modal Modal Concept Examples Should Recommendation You should go to the doctorOught toFormal recommendationWe ought to know about first aidsHad betterWarning/good ideaI had better study or I will fail the test
10Double Concept Modal Modal Concept Examples May (1) Might(1) PermissionpermissionMay I come in?Might I come in?May (2)Might (2)probability= “ “We may visit Mexico this summerMust (1)ResponsibilityObligationEveryone must pay taxesMust (2)AssumptionShe didn’t arrive. She must be sickWould (1)Past (used to)When I was young, I would play soccerWould (2)Present unrealI would buy the car but I can’t afford it
11Double Concept Modal Modal Concept Examples Shall (1) Educated expressionOfferExcuse me, I shall go nowShall I clean it?Shall (2)Contractual obligation (formal)The company shall pay on January 1stCould (1)Unreal AbilityI could go if I had timeWill(1)Will(2)FutureRequestShe will study ArtWill you marry me?Could (2)Past AbilityShe could play the piano, not anymoreCan (1)Present AbilityWe can speak EnglishCan (2)PermissionCan I have a sweet?
12PROBABILITY/POSSIBILITYABILITYPERMISSIONOBLIGATION/ADVICEOFFERSCANI can play the pianoCan I go out tonight?CAN’TShe can’t be his mum. She ‘s too youngI can’t speak GermanCan I borrow the car? No, I can’t.MIGHTIt might rain tomorrowCOULDIt could rain tomorrowI could already read when I was twoCould I see your passport please, sir?MAYIt may rain tomorowwMay I leave the table?MUSTShe must be his sister because they look alike.You must leave before the clock strikes twelve.HAVE TOI have to study tonight.SHALLYou shall pay on TuesdayShall I help you?SHOULD /OUGHT TOYou should see it. It’s excellent.HAD BETTERYou had better sleep more.WOULDWould you like a drink?
13MODAL + HAVE + verb in past participle Modals in the PastThey are modals referred to actions that happened in the pastIt must have been a difficult decisionThey should have invited her to their weddingMODAL + HAVE + verb in past participle
14MODAL PERFECT USES EXAMPLES MUST HAVE + P.P.Conclusión lógica sobre un hecho del pasadoPeter has arrived late. He must have been in a traffic jamMAY / MIGHT HAVE + P.P.Una suposición sobre algo pasadoJoe may / might have taken the wrong train.COULD HAVE + P.P.Habilidad de haber hecho algo pero finalmente no lo hizoYou could have played betterCOULDN’T HAVE + P.P.Certeza de que algo no pudo haber sucedidoHe couldn’t have passsed because you hadn’t studied enoughWOULD HAVE + P.P.Quiso haber hecho algo, pero no pudo hacerlo por causas externasI would have visited you, but I forgot your addressSHOULD /OUGHT TO HAVE + P.P.Queja de que algo haya ocurrido en el pasado o lamento de que no se haya cumplido lo que esperábamosYou should / ought to have warned me earlierSHOULDN’T HAVE + P.P.Crítica sobre un acontecimiento pasado que no debería haber ocurridoHe shouldn’t have told themNEEDN’T HAVE + P.P.No había necesidad de hacer lo que se hizo en el pasadoYou needn’t have bought it .
15Modals in Past : Modal + have + past participle ConceptExampleWould havePast unreal actionI would have bought the car, but I didn’t have moneyCould havePast unreal AbilityShe could have taken the flightMay havePast unreal PossibilityWe may have passed the test, but it was in FrenchMight havePast Unreal Small ProbabilityYou might have sold the house, if you really needed the moneyShould havePast unreal RecommendationYou should have listened to the doctorMust havePast unreal AssumptionWe must have been crazy!
16A last tip There are few verbs which often serve as modals too. These are modal-like verbsThey need to be conjugated
17Modals-like verbs Modal Concept Example Dare to threat D0n’t dare to touch meNeed to *NecessityWe really needed to talk to youHave toObligationSusan had to pay the rentHave got toI’ve got to go nowHad betteradviceYou’d better take a nap before leaving
18Practice My son ___ be home by now. Where can he be? a. Have to b. Would c. Should d. CouldI think your thumb is broken. You ___ go to the emergency room.a. Might b. could c. ought to d. canIf you are interested in losing weight, you ______ try this new diet.a. Could b. mustn’t c. don’t have to d. had toJohnnie’s fallen down the stairs! I ________ call an ambulance!a. Will b. might c. may d. ought toYou _______ come too early. We won’t leave until 9 o’clock.a. Has to b. must c. needn’t d. can’t
19Practice Children ________ be accompanied by an adult at the zoo. a. Ought to b. must c. would d. mustn’tYou _________ talk during tests. It’s forbidden!a. don’t have to b. mustn’t c. couldn’t d. ought toI can feel the heat. We _________ be near the fire.a. Can b. would c. have to d)mustThey ________ hear him because he was whispering.a. Wouldn’t b. mustn’t c. shouldn’t d. couldn’tYou’ve never heard of Britney Spears! You ________ be serious!a. Must b. had to c. can’t d. shouldn’t
20Practice __________ you like to have dinner with me tonight? a. Could b. may c. should d. wouldYou _________ let him hear about the party tomorrow. It’s a surprise!a. mustn’t b. wouldn’t c. couldn’t d. can__________ I speak to the Chief of Police, please?a. Must b. May c. Would d. NeedHe has arrived late. He _______ missed the busa. Must have b. Should have c. Could have d. must
21More practiceRe-write the following sentences using modals so that thay have the same meaning.I suggest that you get a good lawyer!You ___________________________________________A university degree isn’t necessary for that job.Perhaps my father will pick you up.My father _______________________________________4. Eating is forbidden in class!should get a lawyerneedn’t have a university degree for that jobdon’t have to have a university… /you don’t need to have (US)may / might pick you upmustn’t eat in class
22More practiseRe-write the following sentences using modals so that thay have the same meaning.Look at his dirty clothes! I’m sure he is a poor person.He ____________________________________________I don’t believe that the legend of Hercules is true because there’re many contradictions.The legend of Hercules ____________________________must be a poor personcan’t be true
23Use your imaginationThink about these situations and create a sentence using modals.We are going to Paris for a weekend. (Make suggestions about things to do)We start school in September. (Talk about necessity)Margaret is a very talented sportswoman. (Talk about ability)You have just won the lottery! (Talk about possibility)Peter has got a headache and a congested nose. (Give him some advice)You want to borrow your uncle’s Mercedes Benz. (Ask for permission politely)
24Possible answers1. We could visit the Louvre / We should go up the Eiffel Tower2. We have to buy a new notebook3. She can speak 3 languages! / She is able to play the piano and the violin4. I might stop working / I may buy a new car / I can travel to New York5. You should see a doctor / You ought to drink hot tea6. Can I borrow your car, please? or May I borrow your car, please?