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What are modal verbs? 4 They are: Can Could May Might Must Shall Should Will Would Ought to Modal verbs are sometimes referred to as Modal Auxiliary verbs.

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Presentation on theme: "What are modal verbs? 4 They are: Can Could May Might Must Shall Should Will Would Ought to Modal verbs are sometimes referred to as Modal Auxiliary verbs."— Presentation transcript:

1 What are modal verbs? 4 They are: Can Could May Might Must Shall Should Will Would Ought to Modal verbs are sometimes referred to as Modal Auxiliary verbs because they help other verbs They are Auxiliary verbs that provide additional and specific meaning to the main verb of the sentence

2 How do we use modals? Example: Mary could play the piano S Subject V Verb M They do not accept conjugation They do not need other auxiliary verbs

3 Form 4 He can ski He cans ski or He can skis 4 Would you like to come with me? Do you would like to come with me? 4 They cant be serious They dont can be serious There is no s in singular There is no do / does in the question There is no dont / doesnt in the negative

4 Form to can / caning to must /musting She must study We should have gone the other way He could play football in his youth (general ability) Modal verbs do not have infinitives or –ing forms Modal verbs are followed by an infinitive without to

5 Form Modal verbs do not have all the tenses Modal verbs use other verbs to complete the tenses Can is completed with be able to Must is completed with have to They can play the piano They will be able to play the piano in the future You must come early You had to come early yesterday

6 What do they express? To understand it better we are going to divide them into 3 categories 1. Single Concept Modal: one 1. Single Concept Modal: they have one meaning 2. Double Concept Modal: two 2. Double Concept Modal: they have two meanings 3. Modals in past 3. Modals in past: They are used to express a situation in the past They can have more than one meaning depending on the situations

7 Categories Single concept Modals Double Concept Modals Modals in Past Will Might Should Ought to Had better May Must Would Shall Could Can Would have Could have Might have Should have May have Must have

8 Single Concept Modal ModalConceptExamples WillFutureJoe will travel to NY next week MightSmall probabilityI might move to Canada some day ShouldRecommendationYou should go to the doctor Ought toFormal recommendation We ought to know about first aids Had betterWarningI had better study or I will fail the test

9 Double Concept Modal ModalConceptExamples May (1)PermissionMay I come in? May (2)Good probabilityWe may visit Mexico this summer Must (1)ResponsibilityEveryone must pay taxes Must (2)AssumptionShe didnt arrive. She must be sick Would (1)Past (used to)When I was young, I would play soccer Would (2)Present unrealI would buy the car but I cant afford it

10 Double Concept Modal ModalConceptExamples Shall (1)Educated expression Offer Excuse me, I shall go now Shall I clean it? Shall (2)Contractual obligationThe company shall pay on January 1st Could (1)Unreal AbilityI could go if I had time Could (2)Past AbilityShe could play the piano, not anymore Can (1)Present AbilityWe can speak English Can (2)PermissionCan I have a sweet?

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12 Modals in the Past 4T4They are modals referred to actions that happened in the past It must have been a difficult decision They should have invited her to their wedding MODAL + HAVE + verb in past participle

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14 Modals in Past : Modal + have + past participle

15 A last tip There are few verbs which often serve as modals too. These are modal-like verbs They need to be conjugated

16 Modals-like verbs ModalConceptExample Like toEnjoyI like to watch TV Want toDesireJohn wants to buy a car Need toNecessityWe really needed to talk to you Have toObligationSusan had to pay the rent Have got toHave toIve got to go now Look forward toFuture planI look forward to seeing you again

17 Practise 1. My son ___ be home by now. Where can he be? a. Have tob. Wouldc. Shouldd. Could 2. I think your thumb is broken. You ___ go to the emergency room. a. Mightb. couldc. ought tod. can 3. If you are interested in losing weight, you ______ try this new diet. a. Couldb. mustntc. dont have tod. had to 4. Johnnies fallen down the stairs! I ________ call an ambulance! a. Willb. mightc. mayd. ought to 5. You _______ come too early. We wont leave until 9 oclock. a. Has tob. mustc. needntd. cant

18 Practise 6. Children ________ be accompanied by an adult at the zoo. a. Ought tob. mustc. wouldd. mustnt 7. You _________ talk during tests. Its forbidden! a. dont have tob. mustntc. couldntd. ought to 8. I can feel the heat. We _________ be near the fire. a. Canb. wouldc. mustd. have to 9. They ________ hear him because he was whispering. a. Wouldntb. mustntc. shouldntd. couldnt 10. Youve never heard of Britney Spears! You ________ be serious! a. Mustb. had toc. cantd. shouldnt

19 Practise 11. __________ you like to have dinner with me tonight? a. Couldb. mayc. shouldd. would 12. You _________ let him hear about the party tomorrow. Its a surprise! a. mustntb. wouldntc. couldntd. can 13. __________ I speak to the Chief of Police, please? a. Mustb. Mayc. Wouldd. Need 14. He has arrived late. He _______ missed the bus a. Must haveb. Should havec. Could haved. must

20 More practise 4 Re-write the following sentences using modals so that they have the same meaning. 1. I suggest that you get a good lawyer! You ___________________________________________ 2. A university degree isnt necessary for that job. You ___________________________________________ 3. Perhaps my father will pick you up. My father _______________________________________ Eating is forbidden in class! You ___________________________________________ should get a lawyer neednt have a university degree for that job dont have to have a university… may / might pick you up mustnt eat in class

21 More practise 4 Re-write the following sentences using modals so that they have the same meaning. 5. Look at his dirty clothes! Im sure he is a poor person. He ____________________________________________ 6. I dont believe that the legend of Hercules is true because therere many contradictions. The legend of Hercules ____________________________ must be a poor person cant be true

22 Use your imagination 4 Think about these situations and create a sentence using modals. 1. We are going to Paris for a weekend. (Make suggestions about things to do) 2. We start school in September. (Talk about necessity) 3. Margaret is a very talented sportswoman. (Talk about ability) 4. You have just won the lottery! (Talk about possibility) 5. Peter has got a headache and a congested nose. (Give him some advice) 6. You want to borrow your uncles Mercedes Benz. (Ask for permission politely)

23 Possible answers 1. We could visit the Louvre / We should go up the Eiffel Tower 2. We have to buy a new notebook 3. She can speak 3 languages! / She is able to play the piano and the violin 4. I might stop working / I may buy a new car / I can travel to New York 5. You should see a doctor / You ought to drink hot tea 6. Can I borrow your car, please? or May I borrow your car, please?


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