Presentation on theme: "Transportation Emergencies. This section is designed to help you identify special needs and concerns for certain types of emergencies concerning the transportation."— Presentation transcript:
This section is designed to help you identify special needs and concerns for certain types of emergencies concerning the transportation and storage of fuels and other hazards. Transportation emergencies are found and can happen just about everywhere, due to development and industrialization, below are the four places where these emergencies can occur; A. Production B. Transportation C. Storage D. Use
Production Any and all industrial production and processing plants are likely sites for fuels and hazardous materials because of the frequent use of materials in production processes. These sites can also double as a storage facility. Pre-fire planning and inspections can help you become aware of the hazards of these facilities.
Production Emergencies In the next few slides, you will view containers used at some of these production sites. Make note of some other concerns at these facilities, other than the fire hazards.
Bulk Containers at Fixed Sites Horizontal TankHorizontal Tank Flammable liquids Combustible liquids Combustible liquids Corrosives Corrosives Fertilizers Fertilizers Chemical solvents Chemical solvents
Bulk Containers at Fixed Sites Spherical TankSpherical Tank Cap. To 600,000 gallonsCap. To 600,000 gallons Pressures of 100 to 500 psiPressures of 100 to 500 psi Process chemicals Anhydrous ammonia Anhydrous ammonia LPG LPG
Bulk Containers at Fixed Sites Dome Roof TankDome Roof Tank Flammable liquids Combustible liquids Combustible liquids Corrosives Corrosives Fertilizers Fertilizers Chemical solvents Chemical solvents
Production Emergencies In the prior slide you should have noticed that these containers are located next to a body of water. If there were a rupture of leak, you would need to be concerned that there would contamination of the water. If you arrive on scene for an emergency at a location such as this and find it to be leaking, notify Haz Mat clean up team, depending on protocols, notify the EPA and local water authorities
Transportation Transportation Emergencies can occur on the highway, in the air, on water, & by railcar. In the Fire service you could be called out for any numerous reasons, from a simple fuel or oil leak to a major incident involving several hundreds of gallons of fuel or other hazardous materials. You will need to be very familiar with all types of transportation in your area. Know where fuel tanks are located, storage areas, and all means of egress. Major concerns for transportation emergencies would be first of all you safety, patient care and safety, is the accident going to cause further hazards, how to contain the incident to a single incident, will additional resources be needed, and the termination of the incident.
Transportation Hazardous materials are transported throughout this country in great quantities and via all modes of transportation including rail, highway, water, air, and pipeline. Of special note are; 1. railroad lines and classification yards 2. railroad cargo loading and unloading areas 3. general trucking ( and all highway areas ) 4. delivery vehicles 5. trucking terminals 6. cargo aircraft ( and some passenger aircraft ) 7. airport freight terminals 8. airport fuel storage facilities 9. river transport vessels 10. river warehousing, loading, and unloading facilities 11. major seaport areas 12. pipelines
Passenger Cars & Trucks Emergencies The vehicle is overturned into a ditch. The concerns, other than patient care, would be, are there any fluids leaking into the ditch. The ditch may carry excess rain water into a residential drinking system.
Tractor – Trailer Rig Emergencies A major concern for this type of emergency would be, what was the rig carrying for cargo, is there a fuel spill, is there a vehicle possibly underneath the overturned trailer? A proper plan of action would be to first call additional resources. Identify the cargo that was on the trailer. If you find it is of a hazardous nature call for a Haz Mat team If the tractor is leaking fuel, begin containment of the spill. Do not extinguish the fire until you have determined that there would be no negative effect on the environment. Ask possible witnesses if there might have been any other vehicles involved. If there are no witnesses, after determining the cargo and gaining control of the incident, begin efforts to possibly raise the trailer to look underneath for additional vehicles.
Aircraft emergencies create great concern for firefighters. Aircraft Can be small to very large and they carry many different types of hazardous cargos and fuels. In the next photos you will see an aircraft that has crash landed. What would be the greatest concern other than the patient?
A great concern would be, what type of cargo was being carried on the railcars? Is there any fuel leaking from the locomotive engine and if so will it have any adverse effect on the environment or hazardous cargo that might have overturned? A possible plan of action would include additional resources and a Haz Mat team, contacting railroad officials and state agencies.
In the next photo, you will see a Locomotive engine with heavy damage to passenger compartment. How would YOU extricate the passengers on this incident?
There is no way of saying that there is only one way to extricate on a scenario like this. But, as a general rule of thumb, get additional resources such as an additional crew, heavy equipment contractor, or the railroad itself. This would require multiple personnel. Heavy equipment contractors would be able to assist with providing equipment capable of handling this incident, the railroad would be able to assist with determining where to make your cuts, as to not create a larger incident.
The next photo is a common site. A passenger car sees the train coming and feels that they need to beat the train. There are many instances where the Train wins. In emergencies involving passenger cars/trucks and trains, be prepared for extensive extrications and hazards.
Waterway Emergencies Waterway emergencies can be very tedious and time consuming. In 1989, the Exxon Valdez ran aground at Prince William sound, releasing over 11 million gallons of oil. Much of the oil was dispersed, but some still managed to make it to shore in such places as Smith Island and Knight Island. Incidents involving waterways will involve many organizations for the cleanup effort. Next are some photos from the Exxon Valdez incident.
This photo was taken three days after the Exxon Valdez ran aground, just prior to the arrival of a storm.
Here, booms are deployed around the Exxon Valdez to try and control loss of oil.
These Sea Otters are covered in oil as a direct result of the Exxon Valdez accident. Local wildlife suffered drastic declines in population due to this incident, including ducks and other water fowl, fish and sea life.
In 2001, the oil tanker Jessica ran aground on a reef Southwest of Puerto Baquerizo. The tanker spilled most of its 240,000 gallons of bunker oil.
Storage This category refers to the bulk handling of fuels and hazardous materials before and after they are transported to the general geographical area of use. Examples of storage facilities include; 1. LP gas tanks for heat and industrial processes 2. hospitals 3. local chemical distributors 4. bonded warehouses 5. agricultural chemical dealers 6. petroleum tank farms
Storage Facilities Emergencies Storage facilities present great hazards to the firefighter. They contain large quantities of fuel, oil, or hazardous products. When you encounter an emergency at one of these locations, you need to immediately contact the supplier for emergency shut down of that storage container. Local protocols will help to determine who to contact for locations in your area. The firefighter should become familiar with all locations of such facilities in their fire district. Talk to the supplier about emergency shut down procedures to better coordinate an attack of the emergency. Determine the types of structure used for containment, and if they have any built-in protection.
The next few slides will show certain types of containers used for storage of fuels, oils, and chemicals.
Bulk Containers at Fixed Sites Vertical Flat Roof Tank Flammable liquids Flammable liquids Combustible liquids Combustible liquids Corrosives Corrosives
Bulk Containers at Fixed Sites Open Floating Roof Tank Open Floating Roof Tank Flammable liquids Combustible liquids Combustible liquids
Bulk Containers at Fixed Sites Covered Floating Roof Tank Covered Floating Roof Tank
Bulk Containers at Fixed Sites Underground Storage Tank Underground Storage Tank Flammable liquids -Gases - Usually contains motor fuels - Flammable liquids -Gases - Usually contains motor fuels
Bulk Containers at Fixed Sites Pressurized Horizontal Tank Pressurized Horizontal Tank Cap. -1,000 to 30,000+ gallons Pressures of 100 to 500 psi Cap. -1,000 to 30,000+ gallons Pressures of 100 to 500 psi Process chemicals Anhydrous ammonia Anhydrous ammonia LPG LPG
Pipelines Pipelines are a means for transporting fuels and oils from one location to another, without accessing the highways, rail lines, or waterways. These pipelines are required to have a means to shut off the flow of the product in case there is a rupture in the pipeline. You will be able to determine where a pipeline is located by markings above the pipeline. The next photos will show some examples of these markings and shut off valves.