2Tanks and Storage Equipment GeneralStorage of liquid materials is commonly accomplished in industrialplants by use of cylindrical, spherical or rectangular tanks. These tanksmay be constructed of wood, concrete, or metal, with metal being themost common material of construction.The design of storage vessels involves consideration of details such assize and number of openings, shape of heads, necessary temperatureand pressure controls and corrosive action of the content.The necessary wall thickness for metal vessels is a function of:The ultimate tensile strength or the yield point of the metal at the operating temperature.The operating pressure
3Tanks and Storage Equipment GeneralThe ultimate tensile strength or the yield point of the metal at the operating temperature.The operating pressureThe diameter of the tankJoint or welding efficiencyVarious codes are available which specify the conditions that must be met for different vessels.
4STORAGE TANKS Storage tanks can be divided into the following types: Atmospheric storagePressure storageRefrigerated storage
51. Atmospheric storage Tanks - Applied to tanks operating at or near atmospheric pressure.- They are used to hold liquids which will not vaporize at ambienttemperature.
6Storage Tanks - Atmospheric Tanks Atmospheric tanks are categorized primarily as follows:Open top (no roof)- has no roof and may store or process non-volatile liquids suchas water, brine, etc.Fixed roof- Fixed roof tanks, such as cone roof or umbrella roof are used tostore low vapor pressure liquids which will not vaporize attemperature below 120oF.- Generally used for gas oil, water, chemicals.Floating roof- Floating roof such as hard top pan and pontoon roof typeseliminate the vapor space above the liquid, allows storage ofhigher vapor pressure materials.- Generally used for crude oil, gasoline, napthas
8Storage Tanks - Pressure Storage Tanks – applies to vessels designed to withstand pressures sufficient tokeep liquid stored from vaporizing. Used for high vapor pressureliquid such as butane, propane etc.Spheres- Generally used to store high vapor pressure liquidAdvantage is that it can contain the greatestamount of liquid for a given amount of steel.- A sphere can also withstand greater pressures witha given plate thickness than cylindrical vessels.
9Storage Tanks - Refrigerated Storage Tanks - refers to low temperature/cryogenic storage- This type is used for gases that liquefy under pressure atatmospheric temperature.- In cryogenic storage the gas is at, or near to, atmosphericpressure and remains liquid because of low temperature.Cryogenic refers to temperature below -10oC
10Storage of Gas Bulk transport of fluids 1. Pipe lines 2. Tank cars (railroad)3. Tank trucks4. Portable tanks, drum, or bottles5. Sea going tankers6. Container ship