Effects of the Election of 1800 Who was elected President? Thomas Jefferson and the Republicans gained control of Congress
Federalist Power in the Courts Federalists still remained powerful in the courts John Marshall was a Federalist who was appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
Midnight Appointment John Adams tried appointing (Federalist) William Marbury as a judge during his last night as President Thomas Jefferson ordered the Secretary of State James Madison (pictured above) to not deliver the official papers confirming Marbury’s appointment
Marbury v. Madison William Marbury sued James Madison for not delivering the papers and the case went before the Supreme Court According to the Judiciary Act (1789), only the Supreme Court could only hear a case against a federal official Vs. William Marbury James Madison
A Landmark Decision John Marshall and the Supreme Court ruled against Marbury stating the Judiciary Act was unconstitutional. The decision set a precedent. It gave the Supreme Court the power to decide if laws passed by Congress were constitutional It’s the Law!
President Madison left the White House to meet with his officers leaving Dolley home alone. The following day, Dolley spotted British troops on the horizon and fled saving only a portrait of George Washington.
1. Britain was arming and encouraging I _ _ _ _ _ _ to attack American Settlers on the F_ _ _ _ _ _ _. 2. B _ _ _ _ _ _ and F _ _ _ _ _ begin a war with one another. 3. The countries ignored American claims of N _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ and seized American ships. 4. The British Navy used I _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the practice of forcing people into service. 5. J _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ wanted to avoid war. So he used an E _ _ _ _ _ _, which is a ban on trade.
6. This would become known as the Embargo Act and would hurt Americans because supplies of imports like S _ _ _ _, T _ _ and M _ _ _ _ _ _ _ were cut off. 7. Exports dropped more than ___ Million dollars, hurting New England M _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the most. 8. J _ _ _ _ M _ _ _ _ _ _ becomes President.
9. C_ _ _ _ _ _ _ authorized Madison to halt trade with Britain because the French stopped seizing American ships. 10. Madison was not in favor of war, but the W_ _ H_ _ _ _, members Congress from the S_ _ _ _ & W_ _ _, were. 11. Why would the War Hawks want to go to war with Britain? a. b. 12. The United States declares war on the British, but is u_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.
13. Jefferson had reduced spending on D _ _ _ _ _ _, the Navy had only ___ ships. Many O _ _ _ _ _ _ _ knew little about war and the army was S _ _ _ _. 14. August 1814, the British sailed up the Chesapeake Bay and B _ _ _ W _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. 15. A _ _ _ _ _ J _ _ _ _ _ _ led American troops to victory at the Battle of New Orleans and became a N _ _ _ _ _ _ _ H _ _ _. 16. The T _ _ _ _ _ of G _ _ _ _ restored prewar conditions between the countries.
On December 24, 1814, British and American representatives who had been meeting in Belgium signed the Treaty of Ghent, the agreement that would end the War of 1812. Below you will find excerpts from the Treaty of Ghent. As you read the treaty answer the questions that follow each section in order to better understand the agreement reached between Britain and the U.S.
Article I “There shall be a firm and universal Peace between His Britannic Majesty and the United States, and between their respective Countries, Territories, Cities, Towns, and People of every degree without exception of places or persons.” “All hostilities both by sea and land shall cease as soon as this Treaty shall have been ratified by both parties as hereinafter mentioned” “All territory, places, and possessions whatsoever taken by either party from the other during the war, or which may be taken after the signing of this Treaty, … shall be restored without delay and without causing any destruction or carrying away any of the Artillery or other public property originally captured in the said forts or places …. 1. Under the first article of the treaty, who must there be a universal peace between? 2. John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay are among the U.S. representatives negotiating with the British. Once the negotiations are complete, Adams and Clay must bring the treaty back to the U.S. for the Senate to ratify/approve. How long do YOU THINK it will take for “all hostilities” to stop? What factors could prolong this process? 3. How MIGHT paragraph 3 or the treaty have encouraged/motivated the United States to ratify the treaty. Explain your thinking.
Article IX “The United States of America engage to put an end immediately after the Ratification of the present Treaty to hostilities with all the Tribes or Nations of Indians with whom they may be at war at the time of such Ratification, and forthwith to restore to such Tribes or Nations respectively all the possessions, rights, and privileges which they may have enjoyed or been entitled to in one thousand eight hundred and eleven previous to such hostilities.” “His Britannic Majesty engages on his part to put an end immediately after the Ratification of the present Treaty to hostilities with all the Tribes or Nations of Indians with whom He may be at war at the time of such Ratification, and forthwith to restore to such Tribes or Nations respectively all the possessions, rights, and privileges, which they may have enjoyed or been entitled to in one thousand eight hundred and eleven previous to such hostilities.” “Provided always that such Tribes or Nations shall agree to desist from all hostilities” 5. Who will United States of America end hostilities with? 6. What does the Treaty tell us must be restored to those tribes or nations? 7. Who will His Britannic Majesty end hostilities with? 8. What does the Treaty tell us must be restored to those tribes or nations? 9. What must the tribes or nations do to enjoy the end to those hostilities? 4 5 6 7 8
Article X “Whereas the Traffic in Slaves is irreconcilable with the principles of humanity and Justice, and whereas both His Majesty and the United States are desirous of continuing their efforts to promote its entire abolition, it is hereby agreed that both the contracting parties shall use their best endeavors to accomplish so desirable an object” 10. Under Article X, What did both the United States and His Majesty pledge to stop? 11. Why? What does “irreconcilable with the principles of humanity and Justice” mean? Article XI “This Treaty when the same shall have been ratified on both sides without alteration by either of the contracting parties, and the Ratifications mutually exchanged, shall be binding on both parties, and the Ratifications shall be exchanged at Washington in the space of four months from this day or sooner if practicable. In faith whereof, We the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed this Treaty, and have hereunto affixed our Seals.” 11. How long was Washington D.C. given to ratify the Treaty of Ghent? 12. What does the text state must happen in order for the treaty to become binding? 9 10
After the War of 1812, the Treaty of Ghent restores the US and Indian territories to their former state. No changes. What is the significance of the War of 1812? The War of 1812 boosted national confidence and fostered a new spirit of patriotism.
BONUS ASSIGNMENT – Due 2/11/15 (Test Day) Complete the crossword on the back of your packet.