2EQ Why do parents decide to have children? DE Health Standard 2- Students will analyze the influence of family, peers, culture, media on health behaviors.
3JournalWhy do you think the teen pregnancy rate in the United States is so high?What are your current plans and feelings about starting a family?
4Deciding To Have Children Parents who have carefully thought through their reasons for having children have the best chance of raising a healthy family.
5Things to consider:Parents love each other, are emotionally mature, and have a happy, stable marriage.Parents understand that their lives will change a great deal.Parents have completed their education and are financially able to support a child.
6Planning a Family Review budget Child care Maternity/Paternity leave? Women should be in good physical condition.Important to plan for prenatal care (medical care during pregnancy).Stop using contraception (birth control).If infertile is adoption or foster parenting options?
7What are the events that lead to the conception and birth of a child? EQ (9-2)What are the events that lead to the conception and birth of a child?DE Health Standard 1- Students will understand essential health concepts in order to transfer knowledge into healthy actions for life.
9Teenage PregnancyOne in six teenagers who engage in sex become pregnant.1 million girls between the ages become pregnant each year.400,000 pregnant teenagers are under the age of 15.Pregnancy rate for girls under 14 has been increasing.
10Teenage Pregnancy Serious health problem. Babies born to young mothers are often smaller and less healthy.Teenage mothers are more likely to have health problems themselves during pregnancy (don’t eat well or get adequate medical care during pregnancy).Other problems...
11Conception and Pregnancy Fertilization (conception) union of an egg from the mother and a sperm from the father.Millions of sperm may be deposited in the vagina, only a few hundred make it to the fallopian tubes.Only one sperm can fertilize the egg.
12Fertilization continued... The united egg and sperm are called a zygote.the zygote will travel through the fallopian tube, begin to divide.
14Fertilization continued... Within four to five days after fertilization, the growing structure reaches the uterusBy this time, it is made up of about 500 cells.It has become a hollow sphere called a blastocyst.
16BlastocystBlastocyst attaches itself to the wall of the uterus. Implantation- the process of attachment.After implanted blastocyst is known as the embryo.
17Fertilization continued Pregnancy TestingMost common sign of pregnancy is a missed period.Pregnancy can be determined as soon as implantation has occurred.Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)- a hormone that is produced at the time of implantation. HCG can be found in the blood or urine.
18The EmbryoPlacenta- the organ that holds the embryo to the wall of the uterus.Umbilical cord- the embryo’s life-line.The developing embryo is enclosed in a bag of thin tissue called the amniotic sac.
20The EmbryoThe embryo floats within the sac in fluid called amniotic fluid.By the end of the second month of pregnancy, the embryo is 1.2 inches long and has features such as eyes, ears, hands and feet. At this point until birth, it is called a fetus.
31EQ (9-3) What is involved in each stage of birth? DE Health Standard 1- Students will understand essential health concepts in order to transfer knowledge into healthy actions for life.
32BR- What is implantation? Finish Lesson 2 BR- What is implantation?Finish Lesson 2Lesson 2 Review pLook Who’s Talking
33TrimestersThe nine months of pregnancy are divided into three periods, known as trimesters.Each trimester is three months long.The mother experiences many physical changes during each trimester.
34First Trimester Morning Sickness Morning sickness consists of attacks of nausea, and sometimes vomiting.The cause is related to changes in levels of certain hormones. Usually disappears after a few weeks.Other changesincrease of breast size and breast tendernesssleepiness
35The Second Trimesterabdomen begins to swell, and she begins to feel the fetus moving.the enlarged uterus pushes against the mother’s digestive tract and bladder.Thin fluid may begin to leak from the nipples, this is the forerunner of breast milk.
36The Third TrimesterMost women gain between pounds during pregnancy. By third trimester the women is close to this weight.Movement of the fetus can be seen and felt.Indigestion and frequent urination continue.
37Third Trimester continued... During the last few weeks the mother may feel some irregular contractions.From two weeks - few days before birth, the mother’s abdomen hardens and fetus head begins to move lower in the uterus.
38Emotional ChangesSome expectant fathers experience sympathetic pregnancy, a condition in which they share some of the mother’s discomfort, such as morning sickness or frequent urination ( most likely to occur during the first trimester).
39Prenatal CareThe chances of having a healthy baby greatly improve if the mother practices good health habits and has prenatal care.Fetal Alcohol Syndrome mental retardation caused by alcohol
40Prenatal Care continued More than seventy inherited disorders can be detected with either one of two methods.1. Amniocentesis- older method, involves the removal of a small amount of amniotic fluid from around the fetus (14-16 week).
412. Chorionic villus sampling- newer method, results can be available by the eighth week of pregnancy A small piece of chorion, a part of the placenta, is removed for examination.
42Ultrasound- high frequency sound waves used to make a “picture” of the developing fetus. Can detect abnormal bone, muscle, and heart formation. Also can confirm the position of the fetus in the uterus.
445-15-09 BR: What happens in the 1st trimester of pregnancy? Lesson 2 quizLesson 3- BirthBirth Activity
45BirthBirth begins when the wall of the uterus begins a series of contractions.Labor- the work of pushing the fetus out.Labor (birth) has three stages.
46Usually lasts from 4-24 hours. The Stages of BirthStage OneUsually lasts from 4-24 hours.Strong contractions cause the cervix to dilate, from 1 inch to 4 inches ( centimeters).
47Each contraction lasts 30-90 seconds. The amniotic sac breaks and cervix softens to allow the fetus to pass through.
48Contractions of the uterus continue, and the baby is pushed out. Stage TwoLasts 1/2 hour to 2 hours and involves the actual birth, or delivery.Contractions of the uterus continue, and the baby is pushed out.Baby usually comes out head first.
49Baby’s nose and mouth are suctioned out. The umbilical cord is clamped and cut.Special eye drops are put in to prevent infectionInjection of vitamin K is given to prevent excessive bleeding.
50Baby is given an Apgar score, way to determine the baby’s need for emergency care. A score of ten means the baby has come through the birth process in the best condition possible.
51Stage ThreeConsists of delivery of the placenta, which is called the afterbirth.Stage lasts minutes.
52BR: What happens in the 1st stage of labor?Birth ActivityFinish Chapter notesChapter Review WorksheetTest tomorrow
53Complications of Pregnancy and Birth Ectopic Pregnancy- The zygote does not travel down the fallopian tube to the uterus. The blastocyst forms and becomes implanted in the fallopian tube.Results in the death of the embryo and surgery is needed
54Problems… Miscarriage The expulsion of dead zygote, blastocyst, embryo, or fetus from the uterus.Usually occurs during first trimester of pregnancy.It is a natural event that ends 15-20% of all pregnancies.
55Problems… If not treated, mother can die. StillbirthThe birth of a dead, full-term fetus.Toxemiaserious condition: high blood pressure, protein in urine, and swelling which is caused by fluid staying in the tissues.If not treated, mother can die.more common in teens, women over 40 and women who have had health problems
56Complications At Birth Cesarean Section- surgical method of birthOperation takes about 1 hour.25 % of births are cesarean section.Premature BirthDelivery of a live fetus before it is ready to be born.Baby may be put in an incubator, special chambers designed to protect the baby until it is more developed.
57Multiple BirthsDelivery of more than one baby, twins, triplets, or quadruplets.Identical Twins- develop from the same fertilized egg, or zygote. Zygote divides into two identical zygotes. They have identical inherited traits and are the same sex.
58Fraternal Twins- develop when two eggs are released from the ovary and are fertilized by two sperm. No more alike than any other siblings, may or may not be the same sex.
59The Postpartum PeriodBegins with delivery and ends about six weeks after.Uterus shrinks to normal size, breasts produce milk.Prolactin a hormone that causes milk to form in the breast.Oxytocin a hormone that causes the uterus to contract and get smaller.Exhaustion and irritability.
60Changes in NewbornNewborn’s lungs and digestive tract begin to function.Circulatory system and heart undergo changes.Nervous system reacts to new sensation; light, touch, hunger and pain.