Presentation on theme: "THE CHURCH: the Series PART IIc: Its Constitution, Holy Spirit, Body and Soul, Vatican II."— Presentation transcript:
THE CHURCH: the Series PART IIc: Its Constitution, Holy Spirit, Body and Soul, Vatican II
The Holy Spirit and the Church The Soul of the Church The Holy Spirit is the Soul of the Church. (Sententia communus) Leo XIII ( ) “Let the one proposition suffice. Christ is the Head of the Church, the Holy Spirit her soul.” (Encyclical “Divinum illud”; D 1897) Pius XII ( ) “In its content it asserts that like the soul in the body, the Holy Spirit is the principle of being and life in the Church. It is the Holy Spirit who welds together the members of the Church among themselves and with Christ the Head, as the Holy Spirit is entirely in the head and entirely in the members of the Mystical Body. It is He who by His assistance upholds the hierarchy in the exercise of the teaching office, of the pastoral office and of the sacerdotal office. It is He who with His grace excites and fosters every salutary activity in the members of the Mystical Body. All life and growth of the Mystical Body proceeds from the Divine life-principle indwelling in it.” (Encyclical “Mystici Corporis” (D 2288)
This teaching is manifested in the numerous assertions of Holy Scripture on the inner, hidden operation of the Holy Spirit in the Church. He remains with the disciples of Jesus for all time, in His place. John 14:16 And I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Advocate to be with you always; He lives in them as in a temple. 1 Corinthians 3:16 Do you not know that you are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwells in you? 1 Corinthians 6:I9 Do you not know that your body is a temple of the holy Spirit within you, whom you have from God, and that you are not your own?
He binds them all together into one body. 1 Corinthians 12:13 For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whether Jews or Greeks, slaves or free persons, and we were all given to drink of one Spirit. He teaches them all and reminds them of all that Jesus said to them. John 14:26 The Advocate, the holy Spirit that the Father will send in my name- -he will teach you everything and remind you of all that (I) told you. 1 John 2:27 As for you, the anointing that you received from him remains in you, so that you do not need anyone to teach you. But his anointing teaches you about everything and is true and not false; just as it taught you, remain in him.
He gives testimony of Jesus. John 15:26 When the Advocate comes whom I will send you from the Father, the Spirit of truth that proceeds from the Father, he will testify to me. He leads them to all truth. John 16:13 But when he comes, the Spirit of truth, he will guide you to all truth. He will not speak on his own, but he will speak what he hears, and will declare to you the things that are coming. He speaks in them when they are brought before the Court. Matthew 10:20 For it will not be you who speak but the Spirit of your Father speaking through you.
He works in them when they confess Jesus as the Lord. 1 Corinthians 12:3 Therefore, I tell you that nobody speaking by the spirit of God says, “Jesus be accursed.” And no one can say, “Jesus is Lord,” except by the holy Spirit. He helps to preserve the deposit of faith entrusted to them. 2 Timothy 1:14 Guard this rich trust with the help of the holy Spirit that dwells within us. He bestows the extraordinary gifts of grace, and allocates to each as He will. 1 Corinthians 12:11 But one and the same Spirit produces all of these, distributing them individually to each person as he wishes.
He molds the Christian to a dwelling of God. Ephesians 2:22 In him you also are being built together into a dwelling place of God in the Spirit. He effects the forgiveness of sins. John 20:22 (Jesus) said to them again, “Peace be with you. As the Father has sent me, so I send you.” And when he had said this, he breathed on them and said to them, “Receive the holy Spirit. Whose sins you forgive are forgiven them, and whose sins you retain are retained.” the rebirth; John 3:5 Jesus answered, “Amen, amen, I say to you, no one can enter the kingdom of God without being born of water and Spirit.”
the spiritual renewal; Titus 3:5 Not because of any righteous deeds we had done but because of his mercy, he saved us through the bath of rebirth and renewal by the holy Spirit; He bestows the spirit of adoption of sons; Romans 8:15 For you did not receive a spirit of slavery to fall back into fear, but you received a spirit of adoption, through which we cry, “Abba, Father!” He pours out love into the hearts of the faithful; Romans 5:5 And hope does not disappoint, because the love of God has been poured out into our hearts through the holy Spirit that has been given to us.
He brings forth all the Christian virtues; Galatians 5:22 In contrast, the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, generosity, faithfulness, gentleness, self-control. He inducts the superiors of the Church; Acts 20:28 Keep watch over yourselves and over the whole flock of which the holy Spirit has appointed you overseers, in which you tend the church of God that he acquired with his own blood. He directs them in their official activity. Acts 15:28 It is the decision of the holy Spirit and of us not to place on you any burden beyond these necessities;
He takes pity on our weakness and pleads with us before the Father; Romans 8:26 In the same way, the Spirit too comes to the aid of our weakness; for we do not know how to pray as we ought, but the Spirit itself intercedes with inexpressible groanings. supported by Him we cry to God; “Abba, Father” Romans 8:15 For you did not receive a spirit of slavery to fall back into fear, but you received a spirit of adoption, through which we cry, “Abba, Father!” Galatians 4:6 As proof that you are children, God sent the spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying out, “Abba, Father!”
The Fathers attest the intimate connection of the Holy Spirit with the Church. St. Irenaeus (c ) “Where the Church is, there is also the Spirit of God; and where the Spirit of God is, there is the Church and all grace.” (Adv. haer. III 24, I) St. Augustine ( ) “ What the soul is for the body of man that the Holy Spirit is for the body of Christ, that is, the Church. The Holy Spirit operates in the whole Church that which the soul operates in the members of the one body... As the soul quickens every member of the body and bestows a definite function on each, so the Holy Spirit, by His grace, quickens every member of the Church, and allocates to each a definite activity in the service of the whole. Through one He works miracles, through others He proclaims the truth; in one He preserves virginity, in another marital chastity; in one He effects this, ill another that. As the soul does not follow the member that is cut off from the body, so also the Holy Spirit does not dwell in the member who separates itself from the body of the Church.” (Sermo 7, 4, 4).
St. Thomas ( ) “The Holy Spirit is the Heart of the Church based on the Aristotelian thought that the heart is the central organ, out of which all life-powers stream to the body. In analogous manner the Holy Spirit is the universal principle, from which all supernatural life-powers, that is, all graces, overflow to the Church, the Head (Christ as to His humanity) and the members. As the heart with its universal efficacy is invisible to the eye, so also the Holy Spirit and His universal quickening and uniting efficacy in the Church is invisible. Thus the Holy Spirit is very appropriately compared to the heart, while Christ, as to His sensory human nature, is very appropriately compared to the head. (S. tho III 8, I ad 3)... “The Holy Spirit mutes, quickens, teaches, sanctifies the Church, indwells in her, communicates the riches of the one to the others.” ( S. tho 2 II I, 9 ad 5: III R, I ad 3 ; In 68, 9 ad 2; In I Cor. c. 12 lect, 2)
Body and Soul of the Church While the Holy Spirit is the soul of the Church, the lawfully organized visible commonwealth of the faithful is the body of the Church. Both conjointly form a coherent whole as do the soul and the body in man. 1 Corinthians 12:13 In one spirit were we all baptized to one body. It follows from this that he who culpably persists in remaining outside the body of the Church cannot participate in the Holy Spirit, and in the life of grace effected by Him. St. Augustine ( ) “Only the body of Christ lives from the spirit of Christ.... While you then live of the Spirit of Christ? Then be in the body of Christ!” (In loan tr. 26, 13)... “The Spirit does not pursue a separated member.” (Sermo , 4)
On the other hand, it must be inferred from the generality and sincerity of the Divine desire of salvation, that the person also, who entangled in invincible error, does not know the true Church of Christ, can receive the supernatural life given by the Holy Spirit outside the body of the Church. Such a person, however, must have at least an implicit desire to belong to the Church of Christ. In the same way a person who cannot actually receive the Sacrament of Baptism, but at least implicitly desires to receive the Sacrament can attain to the grace of Baptism. (D 1647, 1677)
Hierarchy as Taught in Vatican Council II Lumen Gentium The Lord Jesus, having prayed at length to the Father, called to himself those whom he willed and appointed twelve to be with him, whom he might send to preach the kingdom of God. Mark 3:13-19 He went up the mountain and summoned those whom he wanted and they came to him. He appointed twelve (whom he also named apostles) that they might be with him and he might send them forth to preach and to have authority to drive out demons: (he appointed the twelve:) Simon, whom he named Peter; James, son of Zebedee, and John the brother of James, whom he named Boanerges, that is, sons of thunder; Andrew, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James the son of Alphaeus; Thaddeus, Simon the Cananean, and Judas Iscariot who betrayed him. see also Matthew 10:1-42
Luke 6:13 When day came, he called his disciples to himself, and from them he chose Twelve, whom he also named apostles: These apostles he constituted in the form of a college or permanent assembly, at the head of which he placed Peter, chosen from amongst them John 21:15-17 When they had finished breakfast, Jesus said to Simon Peter, “Simon, son of John, do you love me more than these?” He said to him, “Yes, Lord, you know that I love you.” He said to him, “Feed my lambs.” He then said to him a second time, “Simon, son of John, do you love me?” He said to him, “Yes, Lord, you know that I love you.” He said to him, “Tend my sheep.” He said to him the third time, “Simon, son of John, do you love me?” Peter was distressed that he had said to him a third time, “Do you love me?” and he said to him, “Lord, you know everything; you know that I love you.” (Jesus) said to him, “Feed my sheep.”
He sent them first of all to the children of Israel and then to all peoples Romans 1:16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel. It is the power of God for the salvation of everyone who believes: for Jew first, and then Greek. So that, sharing in his power, they might make all peoples his disciples and sanctify and govern them. Matthew 28:16-20 The eleven disciples went to Galilee, to the mountain to which Jesus had ordered them. When they saw him, they worshiped, but they doubted. Then Jesus approached and said to them, “All power in heaven and on earth has been given to me. Go, therefore, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I am with you always, until the end of the age.”
Mark 16:15 He said to them, “Go into the whole world and proclaim the gospel to every creature.” Luke 24:45-48 Then he opened their minds to understand the scriptures. And he said to them, “Thus it is written that the Messiah would suffer and rise from the dead on the third day and that repentance, for the forgiveness of sins, would be preached in his name to all the nations, beginning from Jerusalem. You are witnesses of these things.” John 20:21-23 When Peter saw him, he said to Jesus, “Lord, what about him?” Jesus said to him, “What if I want him to remain until I come? What concern is it of yours? You follow me.” So the word spread among the brothers that that disciple would not die. But Jesus had not told him that he would not die, just “What if I want him to remain until I come? (What concern is it of yours?)”
Thus the Apostles spread the Church and, administering it under the guidance of the Lord, shepherd it all days until the end of the world. Matthew 28:20 Teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I am with you always, until the end of the age. They were fully confirmed in this mission on the day of Pentecost. Acts 2:1-26 When the time for Pentecost was fulfilled, they were all in one place together. And suddenly there came from the sky a noise like a strong driving wind, and it filled the entire house in which they were. Then there appeared to them tongues as of fire, which parted and came to rest on each one of them. And they were all filled with the holy Spirit and began to speak in different tongues, as the Spirit enabled them to proclaim....
The mission was confirmed according to the promise of the Lord. Acts 1:8 You shall receive power when the Holy Spirit descends upon you; and you shall be my witnesses both in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the remotest part of the earth. By preaching everywhere the Gospel welcomed and received under the influence of the Holy Spirit by those who hear it, the apostles gather together the universal Church, which the Lord founded upon the apostles and built upon blessed Peter their leader, the chief cornerstone being Christ Jesus himself. Mark 16:20 But they went forth and preached everywhere, while the Lord worked with them and confirmed the word through accompanying signs. Revelation 21:14 The wall of the city had twelve courses of stones as its foundation, on which were inscribed the twelve names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb.
Matthew 16:11-18 When Jesus went into the region of Caesarea Philippi he asked his disciples, “Who do people say that the Son of Man is?” They replied, “Some say John the Baptist, others Elijah, still others Jeremiah or one of the prophets.” He said to them, “But who do you say that I am?” Simon Peter said in reply, “You are the Messiah, the Son of the living God.” Jesus said to him in reply, “Blessed are you, Simon son of Jonah. For flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my heavenly Father. And so I say to you, you are Rocky, and upon this rock I will build my church, and the gates of the netherworld shall not prevail against it. I will give you the keys to the kingdom of heaven. Whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven; and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.” Ephesians 2:20 You are fellow citizens with the holy ones and members of the household of God, built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, with Christ Jesus himself as the capstone.
That divine mission, which was committed by Christ to the apostles, is destined to last until the end of the world. Matthew 28:20... teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I am with you always, until the end of the age. The Gospel, which they were charged to hand on, is, for the Church, the principle of all its life for all time. For that very reason the apostles were careful to appoint successors in this hierarchically constituted society. In fact, not only had they various helpers in their ministry, but, in order that the mission entrusted to them might be continued after their death, they consigned, by will and testament, as it were, to their immediate collaborators the duty of completing and consolidating the work they had begun, urging them to tend to the whole flock, in which the Holy Spirit had appointed them to shepherd the Church of God. Acts 20:28 Keep watch over yourselves and over the whole flock of which the holy Spirit has appointed you overseers, in which you tend the church of God that he acquired with his own blood.
Among those various offices which have been exercised in the Church from the earliest times the chief place, according to the witness of tradition, is held by the function of those who, through their appointment to the dignity and responsibility of bishop, and in virtue consequently of the unbroken succession, going back to the beginning, are regarded as transmitters of the apostolic line. St. Irenaeus (c. 115-c. 202) The apostolic tradition is manifested and preserved in the whole world by those who were made bishops by the apostles and by their successors down to our own time.
In that way, then, with priests and deacons as helpers, the bishops received the charge of the community, presiding in God's stead over the flock of which they are the shepherds in that they are teachers of doctrine, ministers of sacred worship and holders of office in government. Moreover, just as the office which the Lord confided to Peter alone, as first of the apostles, destined to be transmitted to his successors, is a permanent one, so also endures the office, which the apostles received, of shepherding the Church, a charge destined to be exercised without interruption by the sacred order of bishops. The sacred synod consequently teaches that the bishops have by divine institution taken the place of the apostles as pastors of the Church, in such wise that whoever listens to them is listening to Christ and whoever despises them despises Christ and him who sent Christ Luke 10:16 Whoever listens to you listens to me. Whoever rejects you rejects me. And whoever rejects me rejects the one who sent me.
In the person of the bishops, then, to whom the priests render assistance, the Lord Jesus Christ, supreme high priest, is present in the midst of the faithful. Though seated at the right hand of God the Father, he is not absent from the assembly of his pontiffs; on the contrary indeed, it is above all through their signal service that he preaches the Word of God to all peoples and administers without ceasing to the faithful the sacraments of faith. 1 Corinthians 4:15 Even if you should have countless guides to Christ, yet you do not have many fathers, for I became your father in Christ Jesus through the gospel. Therefore, I urge you, be imitators of me. Through their paternal care Jesus incorporates, by a supernatural rebirth, new members into his body. Finally, through their wisdom and prudence he directs and guides the people of the New Testament on their journey towards eternal beatitude.
The charismatics who played an essential role in the building-up of the Church in apostolic times 1 Corinthians Chs 12, 14 but these charismatics were not incumbents of Church offices, did not belong to the hierarchy. St. Paul demands the subordination of the charismatics to the apostolic office 1 Corinthians 14:26 So what is to be done, brothers? When you assemble, one has a psalm, another an instruction, a revelation, a tongue, or an interpretation. Everything should be done for building up.
End of Part IIc: The Church, the Holy Spirit, Its Body and Soul, Christ and the Church Go to Part IIIa: The Church, the Papacy, Its Perpetuation, Its Powers