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For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning CHAPTER 5 Job design and job.

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Presentation on theme: "For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: 1408019515 © 2010 Cengage Learning CHAPTER 5 Job design and job."— Presentation transcript:

1 For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: © 2010 Cengage Learning CHAPTER 5 Job design and job analysis

2 For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: © 2010 Cengage Learning Chapter outcomes Discuss issues impacting on the design of jobs. Understand how the design of a job affects employee motivation and performance. Show various methods of designing motivating jobs. Understand how motivating jobs can be created by building work teams. Become aware of radically new organisational programmes such as TQM.

3 For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: © 2010 Cengage Learning Chapter outcomes (continued) Understand the basic elements of a job analysis programme. Describe the end products of job analysis. Identify the major methods of job analysis. Discuss the future use and updating of job analysis information. Cite techniques useful in writing job descriptions. Recognise the major elements of job descriptions and job specifications.

4 For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: © 2010 Cengage Learning Dividing work into jobs Work – Job – As organisations change, these tasks, duties & responsibilities may also change over time When all jobs are added together they should = the amount of “work” that is to be completed

5 For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: © 2010 Cengage Learning Dividing work into jobs (continued) Workflow analysis – studies the way work moves through the organisation –desired & actual outputs –activities –inputs

6 For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: © 2010 Cengage Learning Dividing work into jobs (continued) Re-engineering – generates the needed changes in the business processes –Purpose of business process re-engineering  improve such activities as product development, customer service & service delivery –Require the use of work teams, training employees to do more than one job and reorganising operations, workflow and offices to simplify and speed up the work

7 For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: © 2010 Cengage Learning Designing jobs Major HR concerns: –Employee productivity –Job satisfaction Job design (JD) –

8 For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: © 2010 Cengage Learning

9 For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: © 2010 Cengage Learning A framework for job design Feedback Feedback Task Accomplishment Productivity Effectiveness Efficiency Worker reaction Satisfaction Absenteeism Turnover Job content Task variety, autonomy, complexity, difficulty, identity Job functions Responsibility, authority, information flow, work methods, co-ordination requirements Relationships Dealing with others, friendship opportunities, teamwork requirements

10 For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: © 2010 Cengage Learning Major approaches to job design Specialisation-intensive jobs –Job simplification (job specialisation) Motivation intensive jobs –Job rotation –Job enlargement –Job enrichment –Work teams Sociotechnical approach –Self-managed work teams

11 For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: © 2010 Cengage Learning New organisational approaches Total quality management (TQM) –Focuses on the quality of all the processes that lead to the final product or service –To be successful it requires support of top management & the belief that quality is a key part of every employee’s job –Customer focus in the process of designing and improving quality –Proper implementation requires a clear vision & support of top management and a focus on results NOT the process

12 For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: © 2010 Cengage Learning The office environment Work environment (space, workstations, light etc) affects employee morale, productivity and quality, absenteeism & turnover Creativity can happen anywhere Retain the services of an architect or design consultant

13 For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: © 2010 Cengage Learning Robotics The use of robots to perform routine tasks Industrial robots: –Anthropomorphic –Nonanthropomorphic First-generation robots – Second-generation robots – New robots –

14 For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: © 2010 Cengage Learning Ergonomics Taking into account the human factor in designing the employee’s workstation Relationship between the employees and their workstations – machines used, lighting, noise, chairs etc, these can affect productivity IBM Employee handbook identifies the following: –Posture –Back –Hand –Environment

15 For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: © 2010 Cengage Learning Productivity measures Quantity or volume produced Accurate measure of productivity is vital to organisational improvement effort Gain competitive advantage Strategies to improve productivity & quality –Depends on employee seeing a link between what they produce & what the company is attempting to achieve –What will work for one company may not for another

16 For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: © 2010 Cengage Learning Productivity measures (continued) Organisations must be careful not to measure the wrong things or overlook those that are critical to success Merely implementing quality techniques, including employee empowerment and benchmarking will not produce benefits Productivity is the relationship between what is put into a piece of work (input) and what is yielded (output)

17 For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: © 2010 Cengage Learning Three major components of productivity Effectiveness “Doing the right things” Resource market Market needs Utilisation & efficiency “Doing things right” The production process Labour, materials and capital Inputs Conversion Goods and services Outputs

18 For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: © 2010 Cengage Learning Three major components of productivity Utilisation – Efficiency – Effectiveness –

19 For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: © 2010 Cengage Learning Other JD issues Work schedules –Flexitime –Compressed workweeks Alternative physical work locations –Telecommuting

20 For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: © 2010 Cengage Learning The nature of job analysis (JA) Job analysis – Investigates: –Levels of decision-making –Skills employees need to do a job adequately –Autonomy of the job –Mental effort required to perform the job –Machines operated, reports completed & special financial/other responsibilities –Working conditions (levels of temperature, light etc)

21 For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: © 2010 Cengage Learning The importance of JA New realities: –Organisational restructuring due to downsizing –The need to motivate and reward people –The impact of technology on jobs throughout the organisation –Labour legislation pertaining to employment equity and general discriminatory practices –The implementation of teams

22 For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: © 2010 Cengage Learning Components of a job To understand a specific job and to be able to make comparisons among or between jobs, it is important that anyone analysing a job should know that it can be broken down into several components and arranged into a hierarchy of work activities

23 For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: © 2010 Cengage Learning Hierarchy of work activities Job family Occupation Job Position Duty Task Element

24 For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: © 2010 Cengage Learning Programme implementation 1.Committee review 2.Information collection –General methods Site observations Work sampling Interviews Diaries Questionnaires –Specific methods PAQ FJA CMQ WPS

25 For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: © 2010 Cengage Learning Programme implementation 3.Information review 4.Product completion Job description (JD) Uses of a JD:  Recruitment  Interviewing  Orientation  Training  Job evaluation  Wage/salary surveys  Performance appraisal  Outplacement

26 For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: © 2010 Cengage Learning Programme implementation 4.Product completion (continued) Job description (JD) (continued) Elements of a JD:  Job identification  Job summary  Job duties & responsibilities Job specification (JS) Skills Knowledge Abilities 5.Future use & updating

27 For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: © 2010 Cengage Learning JA problems Employee fear Need to update information regularly Job is held by only one or two employees

28 For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: © 2010 Cengage Learning Summary Understanding how people are motivated, that is, their needs and goals, is critical to modern job design. The task employees perform on the job and the variety, difficulty level and autonomy of the job greatly affect job satisfaction and productivity. Employees, individually or in work teams, are being asked to take on greater responsibility for the design and control of their jobs. Simple, repetitious tasks are eliminated whenever possible, generally resulting in jobs that are more motivating and challenging. At the same time, some degree of job specialisation is necessary so that new employees can learn their jobs quickly and make fewer errors. Programmes such as job enrichment, self-managed work groups, TQM and re-engineering have resulted in redesigned jobs that were previously highly specialised and boring. There is also a trend toward multiskilling, whereby team members learn multiple tasks. Organisations are adopting work teams and giving them more freedom and responsibilities.

29 For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: © 2010 Cengage Learning Summary Total Quality Management (TQM) is one of the fastest-growing productivity improvement programmes in the world. It is based on the principle of commitment to continuous improvement and meeting customers' needs. It is largely a bottom-up change effort. Re-engineering is more radical. It involves more than tweaking old procedures; it is the redesign of business processes to achieve major gains in cost, service or time. The process begins with the simple but powerful question: If we could start from scratch, how would we do this? It is different from TQM because it comes from the top down. Technology plays an important role in modern job design. Robotics, ergonomics and the office environment can improve employee creativity, productivity and quality.

30 For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: © 2010 Cengage Learning Summary In addition to job design, organisations may choose to implement programmes that increase workplace flexibility. These programmes tend to adopt a scheduling mix between employees' needs and the organisation's staffing requirements in ways that are consistent with the company's culture. Compressed work weeks, flexitime programmes and telecommuting are the most common approaches. Employees who desire greater control over work hours, who would like easier commuting or want a different lifestyle will be attracted to organisations that offer these types of programmes. A sound JA programme produces many benefits for an organisation. Information critical to employment and compensation is collected on a systematic basis. JDs, JSs and JEs can easily be produced from the JA data. Thus, critical HR practices such as hiring, wage determination and administrative record-keeping are assisted by job analysis. Information collection should always begin by conducting a background search. Internal sources can include previous job analyses, interviews with job incumbents and job supervisors, site observations by the analyst, questionnaires and diaries.

31 For use with Human Resource Management in South Africa 4e by Grobler, Wärnich et al ISBN: © 2010 Cengage Learning Summary There is a variety of job analysis methods, with each having certain advantages, depending on the purpose, cost and time. The most popular method is the PAQ. A more complex method that demands computer analysis and that can handle thousands of jobs and people is the FJA. Job analysis is necessary to comply with the primary employment provisions. The process helps to determine essential functions and whether an individual can carry out the essential functions with or without reasonable accommodation. Job descriptions generally should contain a complete identification of the job and its location within the organisation. The section on duties and responsibilities should group all tasks into major functional categories, and each entry should begin with verbs. Job specifications should include all SKAs needed to perform the job, as well as other minimum qualifications.


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