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©2007 Prentice Hall Organizational Behavior: An Introduction to Your Life in Organizations Chapter 5 Motivating Individuals in Their Jobs
©2007 Prentice Hall Preview Why do managers work hard to motivate their employees? How do managers design motivating jobs? How does an employer fit a person to a job? How do companies use scheduling to motivate? How do companies use the physical environment as a motivator? How do managers design fair and effective performance appraisals?
©2007 Prentice Hall Why do managers work hard to motivate their employees? Reason 1. To avoid the consequences of job dissatisfaction Reason 2. To attract and keep workers Reason 3. To enhance task performance and organizational outcomes Reason 4. To inspire organizational citizenship
©2007 Prentice Hall Reason 1: To avoid the consequences of job dissatisfaction EVLN model of job dissatisfaction: Exit – leave the organization Voice – try to improve the situation Loyalty – accept the status quo Neglect – exhibit withdrawal behaviors
©2007 Prentice Hall Reason 2: To attract and keep workers Job satisfaction: a collection of attitudes about the various parts of the job Organizational commitment: employees are involved with their organization, identify with their organization, and have an emotional attachment to it Psychological contract: the individual’s belief about the exchange between themselves and their employer
©2007 Prentice Hall Reason 3: To Enhance Task Performance and Organizational Outcomes There is some relationship between worker satisfaction and productivity Job satisfaction predicts both whether employees will be absent from their jobs and whether they are likely to leave them Employee customer profit chain model suggests that employees’ satisfaction with their jobs and company leads to less turnover, more motivated staff, and consistent service which leads to customer perceptions of value, customer satisfaction, and less customer turnover leading to higher revenue and profits.
©2007 Prentice Hall Reason 4: To inspire Organizational Citizenship Organizational citizenship behaviors improve group performance because they help people work together It is correlated with job satisfaction, perceived fairness, and organizational commitment, it also contributes to customer satisfaction and financial results
©2007 Prentice Hall Creating jobs that motivate Job enlargement: also referred to as “horizontal loading” because it broadens an individual’s work Job rotation: giving workers more variety by rotating them from one kind of job to another kind of job Job enrichment: redesigning jobs so that workers have more autonomy, responsibility and feedback
©2007 Prentice Hall How does an employer fit a person to a job? Consider personality and skills Consider individual values What is the process of matching a person and a job?
©2007 Prentice Hall Consider personality and skills Person-job fit is the extent to which an individual’s abilities and traits match the requirements of a particular job fit between the individual’s needs and preferences and the rewards and characteristics of the job fit between individual knowledge, skills and abilities, and the ability requirements of the job
©2007 Prentice Hall Consider individual values Many employees hope to express and develop themselves at work, to the point of bringing their personal value systems to bear on organizational decisions Spending more time on the job Identify less with company and more with personal values Baby Boomers exerting influence of ideas shaped in 1960s and 70s
©2007 Prentice Hall What is the process of matching a person and a job? Job analysis: a company determines what work needs to be done and what skills and abilities are necessary to perform the work Create a written job description and job specifications Attract job candidates and select from among them
©2007 Prentice Hall How do companies use scheduling to motivate? Flextime: allowing employees to choose their own hours around a common core Compressed work week: requires working a certain number of hours during a certain number of days Telecommuting: allows employees to do some of their work at home Job-sharing: allows two or more persons to share one job, each working part time
©2007 Prentice Hall How do companies use the physical environment as a motivator? Office décor seems to affect attitude Companies are concerned about enhancing the air quality and reducing the noise pollution in their office buildings The open plan office where individual work units are organized in one large room More research is needed in this area
©2007 Prentice Hall How do managers design fair and effective performance appraisals? Meritocracy: a system in which people are rewarded according to established standards of performance The role of human judgment: not all raters will be fair or able to accurately rate performance
©2007 Prentice Hall Effective performance appraisals in practice Consider carefully what behaviors and outcomes you want to evaluate Keep in mind the psychological contract between worker and employer Keep in mind that, in addition to actual fairness, perception of fairness matters When delivering a performance evaluation, separate feedback from reward Consider cultural differences Know the law related to performance appraisal
©2007 Prentice Hall Apply what you have learned World Class Company: Volvo: The Uddevalla Plant Advice from the Pro’s Gain Experience Can you solve this manager’s problem?
©2007 Prentice Hall Summary – Why do managers work hard to motivate their employees? To avoid the consequences of job dissatisfaction To attract and keep workers To enhance task performance and organizational outcomes To inspire organizational citizenship
©2007 Prentice Hall Summary – How do managers design motivating jobs? Use the job characteristics model Improve five job characteristics: feedback, autonomy, task significant, task identity, and skill variety They create jobs that motivate using job enlargement, job rotation, and job enrichment
©2007 Prentice Hall Summary – How does an employer fit a person to a job? They assess individuals in terms of their personalities, skills, and values They perform a job analysis to determine what tasks need to be done and what skills and abilities are needed to accomplish them They write up a job description that shows describes what type of individual should perform which tasks
©2007 Prentice Hall Summary – How do companies use scheduling to motivate? Flextime Compressed work weeks Telecommuting Job-sharing
©2007 Prentice Hall Summary – How do companies use the physical environment as a motivator? Consider whether to use cellular or open plan offices Decide whether to bother with creating spaces that are attractive
©2007 Prentice Hall Summary – How do managers design fair and effective performance appraisals? Attempt to assess people on their merits Be aware of the role of human judgment in performance appraisals, including the existence of bias and the role of human errors in decision making Educate themselves about the importance of such factors as psychological contracts, procedural justice, cultural differences, and the law
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