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2 The Analysis and Design of Work
Chapter 4 The Analysis and Design of Work After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Analyze the work flow process, identifying the output, activities, and inputs in the production of a product or service. Understand the importance of job analysis in strategic and human resource management. Choose the right job analysis technique for a variety of human resource activities.

3 The Analysis and Design of Work
Chapter 4 The Analysis and Design of Work Identify the tasks performed and the skills required in a given job. Understand the different approaches to job design. Comprehend the trade-offs among the various approaches to designing jobs.

4 Work-flow Analysis Work-flow analysis is useful because it provides a means for the managers to understand all the tasks required to produce a high-quality product as well as the skills necessary to perform those tasks. Work flow analysis includes: analyzing work outputs analyzing work processes analyzing work inputs

5 Developing a Work-Flow Analysis
Raw Inputs - material - information Equipment - facilities - systems ACTIVITY what tasks are required? OUTPUT - product/service - how measured? People - knowledge - skills - abilities

6 Organizational Structure
Organization structure provides a cross-sectional overview of the static relationship between individuals and units that create the outputs. Two of the most important dimensions of structure are centralization and departmentalization. 1. Centralization is the degree to which authority resides at the top of the organizational chart. 2. Departmentalization refers to the degree to which work units are grouped based upon functional similarity or similarity of workflow.

7 Structural Configuration
Functional functional departmentalization high level of centralization high efficiency inflexible insensitive to subtle differences across products, regions, and clients Divisional workflow departmentalization low level of centralization semi-autonomous flexible and innovative sensitive to subtle differences across products, regions, and clients low efficiency

8 The Importance of Job Analysis to HR Managers
Work Redesign Performance Appraisal HR Planning Job Evaluation Job Analysis Recruitment Career Planning Selection Training and Development

9 The Importance of Job Analysis to Line Managers
Managers must have detailed information about all the jobs in their work group to understand the work-flow process. Managers need to understand the job requirements to make intelligent hiring decisions. Since the manager is responsible for ensuring that each individual is performing his or her job satisfactorily, the manager must clearly understand the tasks required in every job.

10 Job Analysis Information
Job Description - a list of tasks, duties, and responsibilities (TDRs) Job Specification - a list of knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs)

11 Sample Job Description
Job Title: Maintenance Mechanic General Description of Job: General maintenance and repair of all equipment used in the operations of a particular district. Includes the servicing of company used vehicles, shop equipment, and machinery used on job sites. 1. Essential duty (40%) Maintenance of Equipment 2. Essential duty (40%) Repair of Equipment 3. Essential duty (10%) Testing and Approval 4. Essential duty (10%) Maintain Stock Nonessential functions: Other duties assigned

12 Job Analysis Methods Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)
Task Analysis Inventory Fleishman Analysis System (FJAS) Occupational Information Network (O*NET)

13 Job Dimensions and Job Tasks of a University Professor
Teaching prepares and presents lecture material in class Research prepares research reports for publication in journals Advising gives career counseling advice to students Service serves on departmental committees as needed Consulting performs work for external organizations

14 Job Design Job design is the process of defining the way work will be performed and the tasks that will be required in a given job. Job redesign refers to changing the tasks or the way work is performed in an existing job. The four approaches used in job design are: mechanistic approach motivational approach biological approach perceptual-motor approach

15 Mechanistic Approach Has its roots in classical industrial engineering. Focuses on designing jobs around the concepts of task specialization, skill simplification, and repetition. Scientific management, one of the earliest mechanistic approaches, sought to identify the one best way to perform the job through the use of time-and-motion studies. The scientific management approach was built upon in later years and resulted in a mechanistic approach that calls for the job to be designed very simply. New employees can be trained to perform the job quickly and inexpensively.

16 Motivational Approach
The motivational approach to job design focuses on the job characteristics that affect the psychological meaning and motivational potential of job design. A focus on increasing job complexity through job enlargement, job enrichment, and the construction of jobs around sociotechnical systems. A model of how job design affects employee reaction is the “Job Characteristics Model”.

17 Job Characteristics Model
Core Job Dimensions Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance Autonomy Feedback Psychological States Meaningful Work Responsibility for Outcome Knowledge of Results Work Outcomes High Motivation High Quality of Work High Satisfaction Low Absenteeism and Turnover

18 Biological Approach Comes primarily from the sciences of biomechanics, or the study of body movements Is referred to as ergonomics, or the concern with examining the interface between individuals' physiological characteristics and the physical work environment. The goal of this approach is to minimize the physical strain on the worker by structuring the physical work environment around the way the body works. Focuses on outcomes such as physical fatigue, aches and pains, and health complaints.

19 Perceptual-Motor Approach
Has its roots in the human-factors literature. Focuses on human mental capabilities and limitations. The goal is to design jobs in a way that ensures that they do not exceed people's mental capabilities. Tries to improve reliability, safety, and user reactions by designing jobs in a way that reduces the information processing requirements of the job.

20 Trade-Offs among Different Approaches to Job Design
Job Design Approach Positive Outcomes Negative Outcomes Higher job satisfaction Higher motivation Greater job involvement Lower absenteeism Decreased training time Higher utilization levels Lower likelihood of error Less chance of mental overload and stress Less physical effort Less physical fatigue Fewer health complaints Fewer medical incidences Lower likelihood of accidents Lower training time Increased training time Lower utilization levels Greater likelihood of error Greater chance of mental overload and stress Lower job satisfaction Lower motivation Higher absenteeism Higher financial costs because of changes in equipment or job environment Motivational Mechanistic Biological Perceptual-Motor

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