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Chapter 04 The Analysis and Design of Work

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1 Chapter 04 The Analysis and Design of Work
Human Resource Management: Gaining a Competitive Advantage Chapter 04 The Analysis and Design of Work McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Learning Objectives Analyze an organization’s structure and work flow process, identifying output, activities and inputs in production of a product or service. Understand importance of job analysis in strategic HRM. Choose the right job analysis technique for a variety of HR activities. Identify tasks performed and skills required in a given job. Understand different approaches to job design. Comprehend trade-offs among various approaches to designing jobs. 4-2

3 Work-flow Design Work-flow design- process of analyzing tasks necessary for production of a product or service, prior to assigning tasks to a particular job category or person. Organization structure - relatively stable and formal network of vertical and horizontal interconnections among jobs that constitute the organization. 4-3

4 Work-flow Analysis Work-flow analysis is useful in providing a means for managers to understand all tasks required to produce a high-quality product and the skills necessary to perform those tasks. Work-flow analysis includes analyzing: work outputs work processes work inputs 4-4

5 Developing a Work-Unit Activity Analysis U

6 Lean Production vs Batch Work Methods
Lean Production is processes that emphasize manufacturing goods with minimum amount of time, materials, money and people to leverage technology and flexible, well-trained and skilled personnel to produce more custom products for less. Batch Work Methods use large groups of low skilled employees to churn out long runs of identical mass products stored in inventories for later sale. 4-6

7 Organization Structure
Organization structure provides a cross sectional overview of the static relationship between individuals and units that create outputs. Two dimensions of structure are: 1. Centralization 2. Departmentalization 4-7

8 Structural Configuration
Functional functional departmentalization high level of centralization high efficiency inflexible insensitive to subtle differences across products, regions and clients Divisional workflow departmentalization low level of centralization semi-autonomous flexible and innovative sensitive to subtle differences across products, regions and clients 4-8

9 Importance of Job Analysis to HR Managers
Performance Appraisal Importance of Job Analysis to HR Managers Work Redesign Training & Development HR Planning Career Planning Job Analysis Selection Job Analysis Job Evaluation 4-9

10 Job Analysis Information
Job Description- list of tasks, duties, and responsibilities (TDRs) tasks, duties and responsibilities Job Specification - list of skills, knowledge, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics 4-10

11 Sample Job Description
Job Title: Maintenance Mechanic General Job Description: General maintenance and repair of all equipment used in operations of a particular district. Includes servicing company used vehicles, shop equipment and machinery used on job sites. 1. Essential duty (40%) Maintenance of Equipment 2. Essential duty (40%) Repair of Equipment 3. Essential duty (10%) Testing and Approval 4. Essential duty (10%) Maintain Stock Nonessential functions: Other duties assigned 4-11

12 Job Analysis Methods (FJAS) (ONET) (PAQ)
Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) Fleishman Job Analysis System (FJAS) Occupational Information Network (ONET) Job Analysis- process of getting detailed information about jobs. 4-12

13 PAQ’s 6 Sections Information Input Relationships Mental Processes
Job Context Work Output Other Characteristics 4-13

14 Position Analysis Questionnaire Dimensions
Decision/communication/general responsibilities Clerical/related activities Technical/related activities Service/related activities Regular day schedule versus other work schedules Routine/repetitive work activities Environmental awareness General physical activities Supervising/coordinating other personnel Public/customer/related contact activities Unpleasant/hazardous/demanding environment Non-typical work schedules 4-14

15 Job Design and Job Redesign
Job design is the process of defining how work will be performed and the tasks that will be required in a given job. Job redesign refers to changing the tasks or the way work is performed in an existing job. 4-15

16 Four Approaches Used in Job Design
Mechanistic Motivational Biological Perceptual-motor 4-16

17 Mechanistic Approach Specialization Skill Variety
Work Methods Autonomy 4-17

18 Motivational Approach
Decision-making autonomy Task significance Interdependence 4-18

19 Job Characteristics Model A model of how job design affects employee reaction
Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance Autonomy Feedback Work Outcomes High Quality of Work High Satisfaction Low Turnover and Absenteeism Psychological States Experienced Meaningfulness Responsibility for Outcome Knowledge of Results 4-19

20 Biological Approach Physical demands Ergonomics Work conditions 4-20

21 Perceptual-Motor Approach
Job complexity Information processing Equipment use 4-21

22 The Importance of Job Analysis to Line Managers
Managers must have detailed information about all the jobs in their work group to understand work-flow process. Managers need to understand job requirements to make intelligent hiring decisions. Managers must clearly understand tasks required in every job. 4-22

23 Trade-Offs Among Job Design Approaches
Motivational Mechanistic Biological Perceptual- Motor Positive Outcomes Higher job satisfaction Higher motivation Greater job involvement Lower absenteeism Decreased training time Higher utilization levels Lower likelihood of error Less chance of mental overload and stress Less physical effort Less physical fatigue Fewer health complaints Fewer medical incidences Lower likelihood of accidents Lower training time Negative Outcomes Increased training time Lower utilization levels Greater likelihood of error Greater chance of mental overload and stress Lower job satisfaction Lower motivation Higher absenteeism Higher financial costs because of changes in equipment or job environment 4-23

24 Summary Job analysis and design is a key component for a competitive advantage and strategy. Managers need to understand the entire work-flow process to ensure efficiency and effectiveness and have clear, detailed job information. Managers can redesign jobs so the work unit is able to achieve its goals while individuals benefit from motivation, satisfaction, safety, health and achievement. 4-24

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