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Chapter 04 The Analysis and Design of Work Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Human Resource Management:

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 04 The Analysis and Design of Work Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Human Resource Management:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 04 The Analysis and Design of Work Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Human Resource Management: Gaining a Competitive Advantage

2 Learning Objectives 1. Analyze an organization’s structure and work flow process, identifying output, activities and inputs in production of a product or service. 2. Understand importance of job analysis in strategic HRM. 3. Choose the right job analysis technique for a variety of HR activities. 4. Identify tasks performed and skills required in a given job. 5. Understand different approaches to job design. 6. Comprehend trade-offs among various approaches to designing jobs. 4-2

3 Work-flow Design  Work-flow design- process of analyzing tasks necessary for production of a product or service, prior to assigning tasks to a particular job category or person.  Organization structure - relatively stable and formal network of vertical and horizontal interconnections among jobs that constitute the organization. 4-3

4 Work-flow Analysis  Work-flow analysis is useful in providing a means for managers to understand all tasks required to produce a high-quality product and the skills necessary to perform those tasks.  Work-flow analysis includes analyzing:  work outputs  work processes  work inputs 4-4

5 Developing a Work-Unit Activity Analysis U 4-5

6 Lean Production vs Batch Work Methods  Lean Production is processes that emphasize manufacturing goods with minimum amount of time, materials, money and people to leverage technology and flexible, well-trained and skilled personnel to produce more custom products for less.  Batch Work Methods use large groups of low skilled employees to churn out long runs of identical mass products stored in inventories for later sale. 4-6

7 Organization Structure  Organization structure provides a cross- sectional overview of the static relationship between individuals and units that create outputs.  Two dimensions of structure are: 1. Centralization 2. Departmentalization 4-7

8 Structural Configuration 4-8

9 Importance of Job Analysis to HR Managers Work Redesign HR Planning Job Analysis Performance Appraisal Career Planning Selection Training & Development Job Evaluation Job Analysis 4-9

10 Job Analysis Information 4-10

11 Sample Job Description Job Title: Maintenance Mechanic General Job Description: General maintenance and repair of all equipment used in operations of a particular district. Includes servicing company used vehicles, shop equipment and machinery used on job sites. 1. Essential duty (40%) Maintenance of Equipment 2. Essential duty (40%) Repair of Equipment 3. Essential duty (10%) Testing and Approval 4. Essential duty (10%) Maintain Stock Nonessential functions: Other duties assigned 4-11

12 Job Analysis Methods Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) Fleishman Job Analysis System (FJAS) Occupational Information Network (ONET) 4-12

13 PAQ’s 6 Sections Information InputRelationships Mental ProcessesJob Context Work OutputOther Characteristics 4-13

14 Position Analysis Questionnaire Dimensions  Decision/communication/general responsibilities  Clerical/related activities  Technical/related activities  Service/related activities  Regular day schedule versus other work schedules  Routine/repetitive work activities  Environmental awareness  General physical activities  Supervising/coordinating other personnel  Public/customer/related contact activities  Unpleasant/hazardous/demanding environment  Non-typical work schedules 4-14

15 Job Design and Job Redesign 4-15

16 Four Approaches Used in Job Design 4-16

17 Mechanistic Approach Specialization Skill Variety Work Methods Autonomy 4-17

18 Motivational Approach Decision-making autonomy Task significance Interdependence 4-18

19 Job Characteristics Model A model of how job design affects employee reaction 4-19

20 Biological Approach Physical demands Ergonomics Work conditions 4-20

21 Perceptual-Motor Approach Job complexity Information processing Equipment use 4-21

22 The Importance of Job Analysis to Line Managers 1. Managers must have detailed information about all the jobs in their work group to understand work-flow process. 2. Managers need to understand job requirements to make intelligent hiring decisions. 3. Managers must clearly understand tasks required in every job. 4-22

23 Trade-Offs Among Job Design Approaches 4-23

24 Summary  Job analysis and design is a key component for a competitive advantage and strategy.  Managers need to understand the entire work-flow process to ensure efficiency and effectiveness and have clear, detailed job information.  Managers can redesign jobs so the work unit is able to achieve its goals while individuals benefit from motivation, satisfaction, safety, health and achievement. 4-24


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