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Why classify organisms? Biology A. Student Goals Explain HOW and WHY organisms are classified into Kingdoms through species.

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Presentation on theme: "Why classify organisms? Biology A. Student Goals Explain HOW and WHY organisms are classified into Kingdoms through species."— Presentation transcript:

1 Why classify organisms? Biology A

2 Student Goals Explain HOW and WHY organisms are classified into Kingdoms through species.

3 Hierarchical Classification Taxonomic categories Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

4 Hierarchical Classification Classification System in Biology goes from biggest category to smallest category. Each bigger category can hold many smaller ones. i.e., One Kingdom can hold many phyla, one phyla can hold many classes

5 What is a Mnemonic Device A Mnemonic Device is a strategy for remembering things. Typically this involves using a little phrase where the first letters stand for the things youre trying to remember in order. Because a sentence or phrase makes sense, its easier to remember new or non-related things. What is a strategy for remembering the Hierarchical Classification order? What is a Seven-word phrase to remember this order? K ingdom P hylum C lass O rder F amily G enus S pecies

6 Mnemonic Device: Examples King Phillip Came Over For Green Soup Kings Play Chess On Fine Grained Sand Kindly Put Candy Out For Good Students You develop a mnemonic device! Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

7 Founder: Linnaeus Carolus Linnaeus invented a binomial system of classification for all living things in the 1750s Classification system using 7 taxons or categories.

8 Linnaeus: original

9 Classification is in Latin Why do we use Latin scientific names in biology? Latin used to be the language of science. Latin is a dead language; it doesnt change. They are useful to avoid confusion.

10 Scientific names: the Latin name of a plant or animal Common name Dog Cat Human Red maple Corn Scientific name Canis familiaris Felis catus Homo sapiens Acer rubrum Zea mays

11 Binomial nomenclature rules Genus Noun, Capitalized, Underlined or Italicized Example: Ursus Species Descriptive, Lower Case, Underlined or Italicized Example: arctos Ursus arctos Ursus arctos (Brown Bear)

12 GENUS: The first part of the name. Families are divided into groups of closely related organisms. Organisms in the same genus are related to each other, but they may look very different, and be different species. Plural of Genus= Genera Brown bear- Ursus arctos Sun bear- Helarctos malayanus Giant panda- Ailuropoda melanoleuca THREE DIFFERENT GENERA

13 Specific Name = SPECIES NAME The second part of the scientific name. NOT capitalized. Each genus is subdivided into populations of organisms that breed (mate together) called species. All members of one species are more closely related to each other than they are to other members of the same genus. All members of one species tend to look similar, but they are not genetically identical. (There is some variation in genes within each species) Members of a species mate with each other and produce offspring that will look like them. Those offspring can reproduce the species too.

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15 Taxonomic Classification of Man Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Craniata Class: Mammalia Order: Primates Family: Hominidae Genus: Homo Species: sapiens Homo sapien

16 Quiz- Question #1 What two parts make up the scientific name? Answer: Genus and Species Chicago Botanical Gardens: Bronze sculpture of Carolus Linnaeus created in 1982 by Robert Berks (American b. 1922)

17 Quiz- Question #2 What are the 7 categories that Linnaeus developed? (whats your mnemonic device?) Answer: Kingdom, Phylum, Class, order, family, genus, species.

18 Quiz- Question #3 What is one reason why we classify organisms? Answer: To give order to the organisms, provide a universal way to study organisms, it helps scientists understand organisms better.


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