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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select View."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select View on the menu bar and click on Slide Show. To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or the space bar. From the resources slide, click on any resource to see a presentation for that resource. From the Chapter menu screen click on any lesson to go directly to that lessons presentation. You may exit the slide show at any time by pressing the Esc key. How to Use This Presentation

2 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter Presentation TransparenciesStandardized Test Prep Visual Concepts Resources

3 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Classification of Organisms Chapter 14 Table of Contents Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification Section 2 How Biologists Classify Organisms

4 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification Objectives Describe Linnaeuss role in developing the modern system of naming organisms. Summarize the scientific system for naming a species. List the seven levels of biological classification. Chapter 14

5 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Classification Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification Chapter 14

6 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Taxonomy The science of naming and classifying organisms is called taxonomy. Until the mid-1700s, biologists named a particular type of organism by adding descriptive phrases to the name of the genus. Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification Chapter 14

7 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Taxonomy, continued A Simpler System A simpler system for naming organisms was developed by the Swedish biologist Carl Linnaeus. Linnaeuss two-word system for naming organisms is called binomial nomenclature. Over the past 250 years since Linnaeus first used two-part binomial species names, his approach has been universally adopted. Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification Chapter 14

8 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Species Name Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification Chapter 14

9 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Taxonomy, continued Scientific Name The unique two-part name for a species is now referred to as its scientific name. The first word is the genus to which the organism belongs. A genus is a taxonomic category containing similar species. The second word in a scientific name identifies one particular kind of organism within the genus, called a species. A species is the basic biological unit in the Linnaean system of classification. Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification Chapter 14

10 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Classifying Organisms Linnaeus worked out a broad system of classification for plants and animals in which an organisms form and structure are the basis for arranging specimens in a collection. The genera and species that he described were later organized into a ranked system of groups that increase in inclusiveness. Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification Chapter 14

11 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Classifying Organisms, continued Similar genera are grouped into a family. Similar families are combined into an order. Orders with common properties are united in a class. Classes with similar characteristics are assigned to a phylum. Similar phyla are collected into a kingdom. Similar kingdoms are grouped into domains. Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification Chapter 14

12 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Biological Hierarchy of Classification Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification Chapter 14

13 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Linnaeuss Levels of Classification Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification Chapter 14

14 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Classification Hierarchy of Organisms Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification Chapter 14

15 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Classifying Organisms, continued Classification of the Honeybee Each level of classification is based on characteristics shared by all the organisms it contains. The honeybees scientific name, Apis mellifera, indicates that it belongs to the genus Apis, which is classified in the family Apidae. All members of the family Apidae are bees that live either alone or in hives, as does Apis mellifera. Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification Chapter 14

16 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Classification of a Bee Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification Chapter 14

17 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 How Biologists Classify Organisms Objectives List the characteristics that biologists use to classify organisms. Summarize the biological species concept. Relate analogous structures to convergent evolution. Describe how biologists use cladograms to determine evolutionary histories. Chapter 14

18 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu What Is a Species? In 1942, the biologist Ernst Mayr of Harvard University proposed a biologically based definition of species, which is called the biological species concept. Mayr defined a biological species as a group of natural populations that are interbreeding or that could interbreed, and that are reproductively isolated from other such groups. Sometimes individuals of different species interbreed and produce offspring called hybrids. Section 2 How Biologists Classify Organisms Chapter 14

19 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Species Section 2 How Biologists Classify Organisms Chapter 14

20 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu What Is a Species?, continued Evaluating the Biological Species Concept The biological species concept works well for most members of the kingdom Animalia, in which strong barriers to hybridization usually exist. But the biological species concept fails to describe species that reproduce asexually, such as all species of bacteria and some species of protists, fungi, plants, and even some animals. In practice, modern biologists recognize species by studying an organisms features. Section 2 How Biologists Classify Organisms Chapter 14

21 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu What Is a Species?, continued Number of Species The number of species in the world is much greater than the number described. Only about 1.5 million species have been described to date. Scientists estimate that 5 million to 10 million more species may live in the tropics alone. Section 2 How Biologists Classify Organisms Chapter 14

22 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Evolutionary History Classification based on similarities should reflect an organisms phylogeny, that is, its evolutionary history. Through the process called convergent evolution, similarities evolve in organisms not closely related to one another, often because the organisms live in similar habitats. Similarities that arise through convergent evolution are called analogous characters. Section 2 How Biologists Classify Organisms Chapter 14

23 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Phylogeny Section 2 How Biologists Classify Organisms Chapter 14

24 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Phylogenic Diagram of Mammals Section 2 How Biologists Classify Organisms Chapter 14

25 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Comparing Convergent and Divergent Evolution Section 2 How Biologists Classify Organisms Chapter 14

26 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Analogous Features Section 2 How Biologists Classify Organisms Chapter 14

27 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Evolutionary History, continued Cladistics Cladistics is a method of analysis that reconstructs phylogenies by inferring relationships based on shared characters. With respect to two different groups, a character is defined as an ancestral character if it evolved in a common ancestor of both groups. A derived character evolved in an ancestor of one group but not of the other. Section 2 How Biologists Classify Organisms Chapter 14

28 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Cladistics Section 2 How Biologists Classify Organisms Chapter 14

29 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Evolutionary History, continued Cladistics Cladistics is based on the principle that shared derived characters provide evidence that two groups are relatively closely related. A biologist using cladistics constructs a branching diagram called a cladogram, which shows the evolutionary relationships among groups of organisms. Organisms that share derived characters, are grouped together on the cladogram. Section 2 How Biologists Classify Organisms Chapter 14

30 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Cladograms Section 2 How Biologists Classify Organisms Chapter 14

31 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Cladogram: Mammals, Reptiles, and Birds Section 2 How Biologists Classify Organisms Chapter 14

32 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Cladogram: Major Groups of Plants Section 2 How Biologists Classify Organisms Chapter 14

33 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Evolutionary History, continued Considering Characters The great strength of cladistics is objectivity. If a computer is fed the same set of data repeatedly, it will make exactly the same cladogram every time. The disadvantage of cladistics is that the degree of difference between organisms is not considered. Cladistic analysis does not take into account variations in the strength of a character, such as the size or location of a fin or the effectiveness of a lung. Each character is treated equally. Section 2 How Biologists Classify Organisms Chapter 14

34 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Evolutionary History, continued Evolutionary Systematics In evolutionary systematics, taxonomists give varying degrees of importance to characters and thus produce a subjective analysis of evolutionary relationships. In this type of analysis, evolutionary relationships are displayed in a branching diagram called a phylogenic tree. Evolutionary systematics involves the full observational power of the biologist, along with any biases he or she may have. Section 2 How Biologists Classify Organisms Chapter 14

35 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Evolutionary Systematics and Cladistic Taxonomy Section 2 How Biologists Classify Organisms Chapter 14

36 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Systematics Section 2 How Biologists Classify Organisms Chapter 14

37 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice The diagram below shows seven levels of biological classification from kingdom to species. Use the figure below to answer questions 1–3. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 14

38 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 1.Which letter on the diagram represents the phylum level of classification? A.A B.B C.C D.D Standardized Test Prep Chapter 14

39 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 1.Which letter on the diagram represents the phylum level of classification? A.A B.B C.C D.D Standardized Test Prep Chapter 14

40 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 2.What level of classification does F represent? F.class G.family H.genus J.order Standardized Test Prep Chapter 14

41 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 2.What level of classification does F represent? F.class G.family H.genus J.order Standardized Test Prep Chapter 14

42 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 3.What can you infer about different species that belong to the same group at level D? A.They belong to the same group at level E. B.They belong to different groups at level E. C.They belong to the same group at level C. D.They belong to different groups at level C. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 14

43 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 3.What can you infer about different species that belong to the same group at level D? A.They belong to the same group at level E. B.They belong to different groups at level E. C.They belong to the same group at level C. D.They belong to different groups at level C. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 14


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