2 Objectives Demonstrate the following: Knowledge of rope types & strengthsTying basic knotsKnowledge of rope software & hardwareKnowledge and use of anchoring pointsConstructing mechanical advantage systemsBasket operations
3 ReferencesNFPA 1983, Standard on Fire Service Life Safety Rope and System Components, 2001 EditionRescue Technician Instructor Guide, Department of Defense Fire AcademyFire Service Rescue, Sixth Edition, IFSTANFPA 1670, Standard on Operations and Training for Technical Rescue Incidents, 1999 ed.NFPA 1006, Standard for Rescue Technician Professional Qualifications, 2001 ed.PHTLS, Mosby, Fourth Edition
4 Ropes Used In Rescue Static Kern mantle Dynamic Kern mantle Fiber bundles run parallelStretches no more than 20%Known as “low-stretch rope”Dynamic Kern mantleMade of twisted strandsStretches as much as 60%Known as “high-stretch rope”
6 NFPA Rope Classifications Class 1 (Light use) – One person life safety rope w/ > 300 lbs working strengthClass 2 (General use) – Two person life safety rope w/ > 600 lbs working strengthNote: Life Safety Rope must have an internal tracer tape indicating compliance
7 Inspection and Care Use manufacturer's recommendations Inspect by looking and feelingNew ropes inspected and a rope log createdRope should be retired based on experience and good judgment, used in conjunction with educationStore IAW manufacturer’s recommendations and to avoid degradation from the environmentsun, heat, exhaust, acid, hot concreteRope can be washed by hand with a commercial rope washer or in a laundry machine
8 Basic Rescue Knots Overhand Safety Knot Used with all other knots Water KnotUsed to join two ends of webbingBowlineUsed as a Rescue Knot or to hoist tools
9 Basic Rescue Knots Clove Hitch Used secure a rope to an object Around an objectOver an objectDouble FishermanUsed to create a prussic hitch
10 Basic Rescue Knots Figure Eight Knot On a bight – around an object Follow through – around an objectDouble loop – for a dual anchor pointInline – as a anchor point
12 Associated Software & Hardware WebbingFlat or TubularUsed in place of or with ropeStrength1” = 4,500 lbs tensile2” = 6,000 lbs tensile
13 Associated Software & Hardware HarnessesConstructed of sewn webbingTypes:NFPA/ANSI Class I – seat style for emergency escapeNFPA Class II/ANSI Class IV – seat-style for rescueNFPA/ANSI Class III – full bodyNote: Only full body harnesses should be used when there is any likelihood that the rescuer will be turned upside down
14 Associated Software & Hardware CarabinersConstructed of steel or aluminumUsed to connect rope/webbing to objectsTypes & Strengths:Steel – 6,700lbs tensileAluminum – 5,500 lbs tensileFigure EightsConstructed of aluminumUsed for descent control20,000 lbs tensileAll equipment should be 1983 compliant.
15 Associated Software & Hardware AscendersConstructed of aluminumUsed for descent control and climbing2,500 lbs tensilePulleysUsed for mechanical advantage systems or change of directionsMay be single or multi sheave
16 Associated Software & Hardware Prussic cordsFormed using 6 to 9mm kern mantle ropeEnds connect using a double fisherman knotUsed in place of an ascenderSlingsFormed from nylon webbing w/ sewn in loopsUsed to secure rope to an anchor point or object being moved8 or 9 mm is preferred .
17 Anchor Points Selection Fixed object (Railing or I beam) Apparatus (Sturdy components)“BFR” very big rockPicket system (difficult)Always have a second/separate anchor point for the backup line
18 Picket Anchor System Each point has an approx. rating of 350 lbs Lash from the top of the front picket to the bottom of the next one working backwards
19 Anchor Points Types: Single point Tensionless hitch Wrap 3 - Pull 2 Figure eight follow throughCommercial strapsNever use a girth hitchTensionless hitch-object should be at least 4 times the diameter of the rope
21 Anchor Point Critical Angles Any angle in an anchor system will increase the loading on anchors and other element of the systemFor safety, 90 degrees is the maximum preferred angle, 120 degrees should NEVER be exceededFactors for the angle formed by the legs of the anchor in a two point anchor system30 degrees = 0.5260 degrees = 0.5890 degrees = 0.71120 degrees = 1150 degrees = 1.94180 degrees = 12120 degrees is the critical angle because each leg is holding 100% of the load
22 Redirect Critical Angles The greater the angle of the re-direct, the less the force exerted on itNever <90 degreesShould be >120 degreesFactors for the angle of the re-direct150 degrees = 0.52120 degrees = 190 degrees = 1.460 degrees = 1.730 degrees = 2
24 Fall FactorsFall Factor = the distance fallen divided by the length of rope used to arrest the fallA fall factor of .25 is preferredFall factor = 10 feet of fall / 10 feet of ropeFall factor = 20 feet of fall / 10 feet of rope
25 Mechanical Advantage Systems Mechanical Advantage – the relationship between how much load can be moved, to the amount of force it takes to move itSimple – 2-1, 3-1 (modified Z-rig), 4-1 (block & tackle), 5-1 (modified Z-rig)Compound – using two simple systems together multiply the advantage (3-1 & 3-1 = 9-1)The two most used systems are the 3-1 (modified Z-rig) and the 4-1 (block & tackle)
31 Stokes Basket Secure the victim with webbing harnesses Lash the basket from the bottom to the top with webbing or rope
32 Basket LowersUsed when a victim is injured or unwilling to perform a pick-offRequires teamwork and practiceVictim needs to be packagedLowering device should be a “general use” brake bar rack for any two person load
33 Basket Lowers Safety factors Higher weight loads and complexities System safety checks3 person checks (1 being the Safety Officer)More people involvedbasket tenders, edge tenders, brake operators, belayer, team leader, haul captain, safety officerPosition of basket for lowerHorizontalVertical
34 Basket Lowers Single line lower with a belay One main line, one belay line for litterOne litter tenderAdvantage: simpler rope work and brake managementSingle bridal shown.
35 Basket Lowers Double line lower May simplify rigging Makes using a second tender easierBeneficial when it’s necessary to negotiate litter through obstacles or confined spacesAllows easy changeover from horizontal to verticalTwo point bridal shown
36 Basket LowersAttaching basket to litterTwo-point bridles
37 Basket Lowers Tag lines - preferred over tenders To position litter in a confined spacePrevent snagging on overhangsHolds litter away from the wallStops spinning in free-hanging operationsHelps get the litter over the edge
38 Patient Care - Trauma Laws of Energy Newton’s first law of motion – A body at rest will remain at rest and a body in motion will remain in motion unless acted upon by some outside force. Examples: the ground or gravity etc…Newton’s law of conservation of energy – Energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed in form. Types of energy: mechanical, thermal, electrical & chemical. Examples: Transfer of energy during a car accident.
39 Patient Care - TraumaKinetic energy is a function of an objects weight/ mass and speed/velocityKE=M/2 x V2Examples: 30 mph = 67,500 KE units30 mph = 72,000 KE units40 mph = 120,000 KE unitsVelocity/speed increases the production of KE more then mass
40 Blunt Trauma injuries Two forces involved: shear (tearing) compression Both result from one organ or object changing speed faster then another organ or object
41 Blunt Trauma injuries Body system injuries Head Neck Direct in-line compression – crushes the vertebraeHyperextension – from neutral backwardsHyperflexion – from neutral forwardsLateral flexion – side to sideRotation
42 Blunt Trauma injuries Body system injuries Thorax – The sternum receives the initial energy exchange and the internal organs continue to move until they strike the inside of the chest cavity.Aortic tear (partial or complete)80% die on scene1/3 of remaining 20 % die in either 6 hrs, 24 hrs or 72+ hrsPneumothorax (tension)Flail chest – 2 or more broke ribs in 2 or more locationsCardiac contusionLung contusion
43 Blunt Trauma injuries Body system injuries Abdomen Kidneys, spleen, small and large intestinesLiver - The Ligamentum Teres (remnant of the uterine vessels) attaches to the anterior abdominal wall at the umbilicus and to the left lobe of the liverPelvic injuriesDiaphragm
44 Falls Height of fall (including the patients’ height) Velocity increases with heightLanding surfaceCompressibility (ability to deform by energy transfer)What hit first?Feet – Bilateral heel bone, ankle or distal Tabular/fibula fracturesLegs - After the feet stop, the legs absorb the energy = knee, femur and hip fracturesSpine – Flexion causes compression fractures to the thoracic and lumbar area from weight of head and torsoHands – bilateral wrist fracturesHead (shallow diving injury) – All the weight from the moving torso, pelvis and legs are focused on the head and cervical spine, compressing and fracturing the c-spine.
45 Safety Essentials Personnel Protective Equipment Fall protection for all personnel working in elevated positionsRedundancySafety ChecksSafety OfficerBunker gear is not always the best option for ppe, duty uniform rescue helmets gloves glasses are preferredAlways have a backup line, system and plan.Always have at least three people check and system, and load test all anchors.Safety officer should be a tech.
46 Practical Exercises Station 1 - Knots and anchoring to objects Have each student tie the following knots with safety knotWater knotBowlineClove HitchClove Hitch around an objectClove hitch over an objectSplit clove hitchFigure Eight familyFigure Eight - on a bightFigure Eight - follow throughFigure Eight - double loopFigure Eight - inlineDouble fishermanHave each student demonstrate the following methods of anchoring to an objectSingle point with rope and webbingTensionless with ropeMultiple pointsNOTE: The knot tying and anchoring can be done in conjunction with one another.
47 Practical ExercisesStation 2 - Constructing mechanical advantage systemsDivide the students into groups of no more than three or four and have each group demonstrate reeving each of the following using both prussic cords and ascendersZ-rig4-1Have the students demonstrate using the Z-rig to move an object
48 Practical Exercises Station 3 – Patient packaging Stokes Basket Construct harness with webbingLash patient into basketMiller Half-backSecure patient using all straps provided