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Photography Merit Badge

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Presentation on theme: "Photography Merit Badge"— Presentation transcript:

1 Photography Merit Badge
The Photography merit badge was one of the Original 57 Merit Badges issued by the Boy Scouts of America in 1911. Photography Merit Badge

2 Photography Requirements
Explain how the following elements and terms affect the quality of a picture: Light -- natural light/ambient, flash Exposure -- aperture (f-stops), shutter speed, depth of field Composition -- rule of thirds, leading lines, framing, depth Angle of view Stopping action Explain the basic parts and operation of a film camera or digital camera. Explain how an exposure is made when you take a picture. Discuss with your counselor the differences between a film camera and a digital camera. Describe how computer software allows you to make adjustments to a digital photograph after it is taken.

3 Photography Requirements
Do ONE of the following: Produce a picture story using the photojournalistic technique of documenting an event. Share your plan with your counselor and get your counselor's input and approval before you proceed. Then, using either a film camera or a digital camera, produce your approved picture story. Process your images and select eight to 12 images that best tell your story. Arrange your images in order, then mount the prints on a poster board. If you are using digital images, you may create a slide show on your computer or produce printouts for your poster board. Share your picture story with your counselor. Choose a topic that interests you to photograph for an exhibit or display. Get your counselor's approval, then photograph (digital or film) your topic. Process your images. Choose 20 of your favorite images and mount them on poster board. Share your display with your counselor. If you are using digital images, you may create a slide show on your computer or produce printouts for your poster board. Discuss with your counselor the career opportunities in photography. Pick one that interests you and explain how to prepare for such a career. Discuss with your counselor the education and training such a career would require.

4 Objectives Basic photography terms Digital camera technology
Understand your camera Take photographs Download images Editing digital photographs Display photographs (web, , printing) Careers

5 What is a good image? In Focus Proper Exposure Pleasing to the viewer

6 Basics of Digital Photography
Compose:  This is the creative or artistic part. Arrange all of the elements of the picture within the frame or viewfinder hopefully to produce what should be a pleasing composition. Expose:  This is the scientific and mechanical part . Capture the image through the lens of the camera and preserve the image for posterity. Capture the moment – make a memory - tell a story

7 Basics of Digital Photography
One can define photography as "the recording of light rays". That's why taking a good picture depends so much on choosing the lighting carefully. It’s all about the light!

8 Basics of Digital Photography
Natural light (sunlight) Ambient (light in this room) Flash One can define photography as "the recording of light rays". That's why taking a good picture depends so much on choosing the lighting carefully. It’s all about the Light!

9 Flash Camera Flash. Why do we use it? Main Light. Stop Action.
Fill Flash. Main Light. Stop Action.

10 Flash Flash Mode For dim light or for “filling in” backlit pictures.
Most cameras default to auto flash, but you need to know how to manually turn the flash off or on for special conditions. Turn off the flash when it will be useless. For example, photographing a person far away under dim light conditions.

11 ISO International Standards Organization
ISO is the film or digital sensors “sensitivity” to the light entering. Each stop in ISO will double or halve the sensitivity Examples of full stops are: 100, 200, 400 or 800 Lower ISO = less sensitive Higher ISO = more sensitive

12 Shutter Speed Shutter speed is how long the shutter is open and is indicated in fractions of a second. Examples of full stops are: 1/125, 1/250, 1/500 or 1/1000 Faster shutter speeds = less light slower shutter speeds = more light

13 Rough guidelines for the following outdoor lighting condition @ ISO 400 – f/8
Sunny day outdoors — 1/2000 sec Hazy bright day — 1/1000 sec Bright cloudy day without shadows — 1/500 sec Overcast day, or open shade on a sunny day — 1/250 sec A heavily overcast day Deep shade — 1/125 sec Woods on an bright overcast day — 1/60 sec Before a thunderstorm or a heavily overcast day — 1/30 sec

14 Aperture Aperture is the size of the lens opening and is referred to as an “f stop”. Higher values represent a smaller aperture, lower values represent a larger aperture Examples of full stops are: f2, f2.8, f4, f5.6, f8, f11 or f16 Smaller aperture = less light Larger aperture = more light

15 Aperture and Shutter Speed
Aperture and shutter speed interact to give a correct exposure. There is a balance between the two. These settings would give about the same exposure:

16 Shutter Speed + Aperture = Exposure
Shutter speed and aperture interact to produce good exposure. Auto Exposure is usually the default and can be overridden on some cameras by setting the camera to: Aperture-priority auto: The user sets the aperture and the camera sets the speed. Shutter-priority auto: The user sets shutter speed and the camera sets the aperture. Manual: The user sets both speed and aperture.

17 Depth of Field -DOF

18 Depth of Field -DOF If the exposure is made with a wide aperture ( like F2.8 ), then objects farther away from the subject are thrown farther out of focus. This effect is referred to as “depth of field”. If the aperture is small (like F22) then objects in the background and foreground will appear sharper.

19 White Balance White balance adjusts the white color quality of your image. Digital cameras usually have adjustable white balance settings for electronic flash, shade, sunlight, fluorescent lighting and tungsten lighting. Most cameras default to “auto” white balance and some cameras allow it to be set separately.

20 The Rule of Thirds Place important elements of the composition where the lines intersect.

21 Framing Draw attention to center/foreground

22 Contrast Contrast adds interest by emphasizing difference in tone, color texture, size

23 Leading Lines Lead the viewer’s eyes

24 Balance Symmetrical balance – divides image into distinct zones.

25 Backgrounds Add or distract from subject.

26 Backgrounds Add or distract from subject.

27 Camera Angles Try different angles

28 Camera Angles

29 Basic Camera Shots

30 The Amount of Scene

31 Stopping Action When shooting fast-moving animals such as birds in flight, you may want a shutter speed as high as 1/1250th of a second to freeze your subject. Proper technique in stabilizing your camera can go a long way.

32 Time Lapse Photography

33 Time Lapse Photography
A higher shutter speed and ISO can be set for stopping action.

34 Macro Macro refers to a digital camera function that takes “close-up” pictures—images of objects that are only a few inches away. Most digital cameras have a macro setting and take good macro pictures because of the inherent design of digital cameras.

35 Cameras and How They Work

36 Other Settings Camera settings (language, auto-off, etc.)
Timer (so the photographer can be in the picture) Metering (how the camera decides on brightness) Continuous shooting (camera shoots as fast as it can) Best Shot Selector (multiple shots at different settings) Saturation Control (controlling color intensity) Image Sharpening (electronic improvement of shot) Etc.

37 Equipment Camera Operating manual!
Batteries/power cord. Use NiMH batteries. Extra storage (memory cards) Computer interface cable Optional: lens, Camera bag, tripod, flash, UV filter, etc.

38 Digital Camera Features and Terminology
You don’t need to know terminology or your camera’s features, you can just shoot “auto” and hope for the best. OR! If you understand your camera and have experience using it’s features, you will take better pictures.

39 Understanding Your Camera
What are your camera’s abilities and limitations? What features does it have? You need to read and understand your Camera’s operating manual! You need to have experience shooting pictures and studying the results.

40 Pixels A pixel is a contraction of the term Picture Element.
Digital images are made up of small squares, just like a tile mosaic on your kitchen or bathroom wall. Though a digital photograph looks smooth and continuous just like a regular photograph, it's actually composed of millions of tiny squares as shown below. On the left the full image, on the right the area in the red square magnified to show individual pixels.

41 Megapixel A megapixel is equal to 1 millions pixels.
How many megapixels a camera shoots at indicates the maximum size and/or detail of a digital picture. Generally, more pixels are better (and cost more), but it is not only factor that should be considered when choosing a camera.

42 Image Size Refers to the dimensions of the image, measured in pixels.
Pictures taken at smaller sizes require less memory and are suitable for distribution by or on the web. Conversely, the larger the image, the larger the size at which it can be printed or displayed without loosing quality (becoming “grainy”).

43 Image Size 1MP 11” x 14” Image Size Pixels Print Size (@300dpi)
and Web

44 File Types JPEG (JPG): The most common format.
This is a compression format that can be saved at various qualities. TIFF: A “loss-less” compression format of a higher quality that is better for very high quality prints but has larger file size. RAW: Actual image from the camera sensor

45 Practice with Your Camera
The best way to take good pictures is to take a lot of them and to experiment with your camera. Understand your camera settings. Take pictures and do tests: Take the same picture several times while changing the settings for each shot. Then compare the result. What settings work best under what conditions? What are the characteristics of your camera? Digital pictures are FREE until you print them!

46 Practice with Your Camera

47 Transferring Pictures
Most cameras use a USB cable that connects the camera to the computer.

48 Storyboard

49 Photographic Display

50 Careera in Photography
Wildlife Photography Nature and wildlife is one of the primary subjects of photography today.  The natural beauty that surrounds us in the form of landscapes, plants, and wildlife is a compelling subject to capture in still images. There is something deeply compelling about wading in an Alaskan stream with Brown Bears and documenting their beauty and behavior. 

51 Careers in Photography
Portrait Photography

52 Careers in Photography
Media and Sports Photography

53 Careers in Photography
Products and Advertising Photography

54 The End

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