2 It’s just taking pictures, right? Photographers have a lot to think about when taking photographs.Professional photography is another form of artPhotographers know how their camera worksPhotographers look for specific things like the best angle, composition, contrast, patterns and balance in their photographs.This unit will focus on learning the basic compositional techniques that photographers use.
3 The Camera AnatomyAperture- The diaphragm of the lens. In fancy cameras, it can be adjusted to let in less or more light, depending on how big it isISO- International Organizational Standard. This refers to how fast the picture is taken. If it is taken quickly, less light will be let in and faster action can be captured. It is the speed rating this is necessary to give a proper exposure. A normal rating will be rated at ISO 100. It can go up to 800 or more, which would be used for darker situations, but the quality would not be as good.
6 Activity 1Take two photographs of a moving person or object by changing the ISO or shutter speed setting of the camera.Experiment and see what the results arePlace the images in a Word document and describe your results in a paragraph. What are the differences?
7 Basic TechniquesPhotographic composition is the pleasing arrangement of subject matter elements within the picture area. Creative photography depends foremost on the photographer's ability to see as the camera sees because a photograph does not reproduce a scene quite the way we see it.The camera sees and records only a small isolated part of the larger scene, reduces it to only two dimensions, frames it, and freezes it. It does not discriminate as we do. When we look at a scene we selectively see only the important elements and more or less ignore the rest.A camera, on the other hand, sees all the details within the field of view. This is the reason some of our pictures are often disappointing. Backgrounds may be cluttered with objects we do not remember, our subjects are smaller in the frame or less striking than we recall, or the entire scene may lack significance and life.
8 Rule of ThirdsOne of the most popular 'rules' in photography is the Rule Of Thirds. It is also popular amongst artists. It works like this: Imaginary lines are drawn dividing the image into thirds both horizontally and vertically. You place important elements of your composition where these lines intersect. I've even made a little diagram for you
9 Rule of ThirdsAs well as using the intersections you can arrange areas into bands occupying a third or place things along the imaginary lines. As you can see it is fairly simple to implement. Good places to put things; third of the way up, third of the way in from the left , you get the idea. The main focus point of the bee is right on the line.
11 Activity 2 Using the rule of 3rds, shoot 3 different pictures Place them in a Word document and explain your findings.
12 Good Photos are Seldom Created By Chance The general principles of photography:Center of interestSubject placementSimplicityViewpoint and camera angleBalanceShapes and linesPatternVolumeLightingTextureToneContrastFramingForegroundBackgroundPerspective
13 Centre of InterestWhere is your eye drawn? The colours really make it ‘pop’
14 Subject PlacementInteresting placement of the main focus of your photo
15 SimplicitySometimes photographers try to put too much into a picture. Simple is better. In this photo we have only 3 things: Our subject, the waves balancing the other half of the photo and the background.
16 Viewpoint and Camera Angle Adds another perspective. Get down low or high, or change the angle.
17 Balance There is no wasted space, yet it is not cluttered. The dark bottle adds contrast and fills the space to the right of the bright fish.
18 BalanceI find my eyes drawn to the pawns, yet the Queen still takes up a dominating amount of space.
22 VolumeWhen photographing most subjects, you face the problem of how to symbolize three-dimensional objects in a two-dimensional picture. The solution becomes simple when a distinction is made between the two different ways three-dimensional objects appear: as positive, or occupied space (volume) or as negative, or unoccupied space.unit placed at the camera, you only symbolize empty or negative space; however, a sense of depth is provided because of increasing darkness toward the back of the shop. Occupied or positive space (the machines) is. If you make a picture to show the entire machine front-lighted and appears shadowless and flat. Look at all of the different shadows in the machines on the picture in the previous page.
23 TexturePhotographing different kinds of textures. Can you feel what the wall is like in your mind? Texture can give feeling, character and detail.
24 LightingAffects the mood and look. Try to set up a shot that uses light in an interesting way.
25 ToneThe qualities or intensities of colour. Look at all the different greens