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George Washington’s Farewell Address

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1 George Washington’s Farewell Address
“The alternate dominion of one faction over another, sharpened by the spirit of revenge…” “It serves always to distract the public councils and enfeeble the public administration. It agitates the community with ill-founded jealousies and false alarms, kindles the animosity of one part against another, foments occasionally riot and insurrection.”

2 Chapter 9: The Political Process
Part 2: Section 3 and 4

3 American political symbols

4 Political Parties Political Party: an organization that tries to elect its own members to public office so that its views can become public policy. Public policy: a system of laws, regulatory measures, and government actions derived from a governmental entity. Each party has a basic set of principles (ideology: the assertions, theories, and doctrines that guide a social or political institution) which are generally supported by its members. In which article of the Constitution are political party rules and regulations discussed? What are the historical roots of the the American political party system?

5 Two Party System Due to the Electoral College system, the U.S. has predominately always adopted a two-party national system. Why? Winner-Take-All Majority Rule House of Reps State Gerrymandering Our voting system has helped to determine our party system What political divide first started the two-party system in the United States?

6 Historical roots Federalists = Big Federal Government Federalists
Whigs Republicans (1860) = Anti-slavery, Protection of Business (big and small) Democrats = After New Deal, support Big Government and Progressivism Anti-Federalists = State Power and Individual Freedom Democratic-Republicans Democrats (1828) = Southern Slave Owners Rights, State Sovereignty Republicans = In 1980’s, support Small Government to support business and conservatism

7 Third Parties in Two Party System
Third Party: a party that challenges the two main parties. They seldom win, but they can help change politics. How? Bring issues to the public’s attention (United States Marijuana Party). Effect outcome of elections which forces major parties to adopt their core belief systems. -Independent candidate: a candidate not associated with any party. Third Parties (examples): Libertarian- Individual liberty, shrink government Green Party- Regulation of Big Business, Social Justice, and Environmental responsibility Constitution Party- Christian Party, limit federal spending and taxing, increase tariffs, socially conservative

8 Alterative Systems One Party System: A single party controls the government. Also known as a single party system. Other parties may exist, but, usually, have no power. What type of government does this create?

9 Multi-Party System Based on three or more main parties.
Benefits: more options to choose from and more ideas to choose from. Citizens are not bound to one of two party’s ideologies. Weaknesses: can lead to radical/reactionary groups (extreme political groups), Coalition government: In a majority rule system, a group of parties must agree to cooperate in order to create a majority of votes.

10 Political Spectrum Left Right
The two party’s political beliefs are primarily characterized on how they view the current social system. Definitely Democrats Moderate/ Independent Definitely Republicans Radical: Extreme Change/ Alter Society Leaning towards Democrats Leaning Towards Republicans Reactionary: Go Back to Previous State/ Traditional

11 Two Party System and Moderation
Some social scientists believe that the two party system actually creates a more balanced, moderate system by filtering out extremism. How? Obstacles to this theory: Media Low Voter Turnout Primaries Gerrymandering

12 Politics Liberal: a political belief system founded on the promotion of individual liberty and equality by the reduction of government. (hence “libertarians”) But in the United States, liberalism is synonymous with big government and progressivism. Conservative: a political belief system which values the preservation of the social traditions and norms. But in the United States, conservatism is synonymous with small government. Planks: each individual belief of a party (pro-life v. pro-choice) Platform: the aggregate of all the planks which encompasses the overall belief system of the party.

13 Organization National Committee: Raises Money at the Federal Level; Creates a common platform; and organizes the National Convention (RNC and DNC) 50 State Committees: Tries to get elected as many candidates within the state as possible; raises and directs money. Ward: A group of precincts. Helps the state committee to decide where to best put resources. Precinct: a geographical area which contains a specific number of voters. Precinct Captain: Each precinct has a member to organize the party members within the precinct to vote on election day.

14 Elections: How do we choose the candidates who will represent us?

15 Voting 18 years of age, resident of the state, citizen of the United States, registered. Polling Place: where the vote is held. Absentee ballot: a ballot to vote for a registered voter who is unable or unwilling to attend the official polling place. Who is in charge of elections? Missouri Secretary of State: Jason Kander Saint Louis Board of Elections

16 Coverage Returns: Votes from each precinct is counted.
Voting precinct: voting district Exit Polls: Polls taken from voters as they leave polling place. Allows analysts to make predictions. How can it influence the outcome of an election? Push polls: a technique used by campaigns to influence voters under the disguise of a valid poll.

17 Primaries In order for a candidate to be chosen by the party to run in the general election, a primary is held in order for the parties to choose their candidates. Closed Primary: only voters registered as party members can vote in selecting candidates. Open Primary: any registered voter may vote in either party’s primary election, but only for one of them. Presidential Primary: delegates choose presidential nominee. delegates: representatives of the party to cast a vote for a nominee at the convention. Super delegates (democrats only): an elected official who receives votes to distribute to the candidate of their choice at the convention.

18 Primaries Voter turnout is very low:
Since %-41%. “Primary electorates are much more partisan and prone to ideological extremity, and the need to please them is on e force behind party polarization in Congress.” Explain. How does this affect general elections? What is the overall effect in Washington?

19 Types of Elections General Election: 1st Tuesday after the 1st Monday in November on even dated years. Why? In most states, only a plurality is required to win. But it depends on the state. Special Elections: Special circumstances can lead to elections outside of the general election cycle. Run-off: if an election requires a majority, but none but was reached, a run-off is held between the top two candidates. Recall: a vote to remove an elected official from office before the end of term.

20 Campaign Finance Reform
Can someone buy our government? If there are no limits on what you give politicians, can you buy their votes in Washington D.C.? Creates a need to control campaign contributions. FECA- Federal Election Campaign Act- Created to regulate (place rules and limits upon) campaign finance. Public Disclosure (from whom is the money coming, and what is it spent on?) – Sunshine Laws Limit on hard money: money given exactly to a candidate. Limit on soft money: money given to a political party to be given indirectly to a candidate. Limit PACs (Political Action Committee): an organization which pools campaign contributions from its members and donates those funds from its members for or against candidate, ballot initiative, or piece of legislation.

21 Campaign Finance Reform
Buckley v. Valeo: government COULD set limits on campaign contributions. McCain-Feingold Act: limited soft money. Limits: Candidate National Committee Individual $2,600 $32,400 National Committee $5, State Committee $5,000 No Limit PAC $5, $32,400 Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission: Allows corporations and other unions unrestricted speech in the promotion of their own political goals. Super PAC: Gives no money directly to any party or candidate, and has no limits on their members contributions to .

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