Presentation on theme: "GEORGE WASHINGTON’S FAREWELL ADDRESS “The alternate dominion of one faction over another, sharpened by the spirit of revenge…” “It serves always to distract."— Presentation transcript:
GEORGE WASHINGTON’S FAREWELL ADDRESS “The alternate dominion of one faction over another, sharpened by the spirit of revenge…” “It serves always to distract the public councils and enfeeble the public administration. It agitates the community with ill- founded jealousies and false alarms, kindles the animosity of one part against another, foments occasionally riot and insurrection.”
TWO PARTY SYSTEM Political Party: an association of voters with broad, common interests who want to influence or control decision making in government by electing the party’s candidates to public office. Due to the Electoral College system, the U.S. has predominately always adopted a two-party national system. Why? -Winner-Take-All -Majority Rule -House of Reps -State Gerrymandering -Our voting system has helped to determine our party system What political divide first started the two-party system in the United States?
HISTORICAL ROOTS Federalists = Big Federal Government FederalistsWhigsRepublicans (1860) = Anti- slavery, Protection of Business (big and small) Democrats = After New Deal, support Big Government and Progressivism Anti- Federalists = State Power and Individual Freedom Democratic- Republicans Democrats (1828) = Southern Slave Owners Rights, State Sovereignty Republicans = In 1980’s, support Small Government to support business and conservatism
LAISSEZ-FAIRE French: “Let Do” or “Hands Free” Economics A politico-economic theory which believes that private citizens should control their economy (use of resources) freely and without control of the government. No (less) taxes, no (less) subsidies, and no (less) tarrifs Primarily, parties which support small government lean more towards laissez-faire economic principles.
THIRD PARTIES Third Party: a party that challenges the two main parties. -They seldom win, but they can help change politics. -How?
THIRD PARTIES 1.Bring issues to the public’s attention. 2.Effect outcome of elections which forces major parties to adopt their core belief systems. Third Parties: -Libertarian- Individual liberty, shrink government -Green Party- Regulation of Big Business, Social Justice, and Environmental responsibility -Constitution Party- Christian Party, limit federal spending and taxing, increase tariffs, socially conservative
MULTI-PARTY SYSTEM Based on three or more main parties. -Benefits: more options to choose from and more ideas to choose from. Citizens are not bound to one of two party’s ideologies. -Weaknesses: can lead to radical/reactionary groups (extreme political groups), Coalition government: In a majority rule system, a group of parties must agree to cooperate in order to create a majority of votes.
ONE PARTY SYSTEM Only one party to choose to run the government. -Also known as a single party system. -What type of government does this create?
POLITICAL SPECTRUM Left Right Radical: Extreme Change/ Alter Society Reactionary: Go Back to Previous State/ Traditional Leaning Towards Republicans Leaning towards Democrats Definitely Republicans Moderate/ Independent Definitely Democrats The two party’s political beliefs are primarily characterized on how they view the current social system.
POLITICS Liberal: a political belief system founded on the promotion of individual liberty and equality by the reduction of government. (hence “libertarians”) -But in the United States, liberalism is synonymous with big government and progressivism. Conservative: a political belief system which values the preservation of the social traditions and norms. -But in the United States, conservatism is synonymous with small government. Planks: each individual belief of a party (pro-life v. pro-choice) Platform: the aggregate of all the planks which encompasses the overall belief system of the party.
ORGANIZATION National Committee: Raises Money at the Federal Level; Creates a common platform; and organizes the National Convention (RNC and DNC) 50 State Committees: Tries to get elected as many candidates within the state as possible; raises and directs money. Ward: A group of precincts. Helps the state committee to decide where to best put resources. Precinct: a geographical area which contains a specific number of voters. Precinct Captain: Each precinct has a member to organize the party members within the precinct to vote on election day.
POLITICAL MOVEMENTS Political Machine: a political organization in which the leaders of the organization get out the vote for their candidates on election day. Grassroots Movement: a political organization which is motivated and driven by the local community. Is our system a top down system or a grassroots system?
PRIMARIES In order for a candidate to be chosen by the party to run in the general election, an primary is held in order for the parties to choose their candidates. Presidential Primary: delegates choose presidential nominee. -delegates: representatives of the party to cast a vote for a nominee at the convention. -Super delegates (democrats only): an elected official who receives votes to distribute to the candidate of their choice at the convention.
VOTING 18 years of age, resident of the state, citizen of the United States, registered. Polling Place: where the vote is held. Absentee ballot: a ballot to vote for a registered voter who is unable or unwilling to attend the official polling place. Who is in charge of elections? -Missouri Secretary of State: Jason Kander -Saint Louis Board of Elections
COVERAGE Returns: Votes from each precinct is counted. -Voting precinct: voting district Exit Polls: Polls taken from voters as they leave polling place. -Allows analysts to make predictions. -How can it influence the outcome of an election? Push polls: a technique used by campaigns to influence voters under the disguise of a valid poll.
TYPES OF ELECTIONS General Election: 1 st Tuesday after the 1 st Monday in November on even dated years. -Why? Special Elections: Special circumstances can lead to elections outside of the general election cycle. -run-off: if an election requires a majority, but none but was reached, a run-off is held between the top two candidates. -Recall: a vote to remove an elected official from office before the end of term. -Each state and local government can also have elections outside of the general.
WHAT DO WE VOTE FOR? 2012 Missouri Sample Ballot Initiative: Citizens can propose laws to be placed on the ballot through petitions. Proposition: Citizen proposed law which has been placed on a ballot. (Direct Democracy) Referendum: Citizens can “refer” a law passed by their legislature to be placed on the ballot. (Direct Democracy/Check on the State Legislature) Presidential Elections (61%- High) v. Mid-Term Elections (48%-High)
CAMPAIGNS Billions of dollars are spent every election cycle. -2012: Over $4.2 Billion on elections for Congress and White House alone. -Canvassing (knocking on doors), phone calls, advertising, campaign rallies -What is the purpose of spending money in a campaign?
APATHY Apathy: Lack of concern or care. Americans are apathetic about government and politics. -Many people do not like the system of political parties we have created…a lack of choice. -Who’s fault? -How do we fix that system?
CAMPAIGN FINANCE REFORM Can someone buy our government? -If there are no limits on what you give politicians, can you buy their votes in Washington D.C.? -Creates a need to control campaign contributions. FECA- Federal Election Campaign Act- Created to regulate (place rules and limits upon) campaign finance. -Public Disclosure (from whom is the money coming, and what is it spent on?) -Limit on hard money: money given exactly to a candidate. -Limit on soft money: money given to a political party to be given indirectly to a candidate. -Limit PACs (Political Action Committee): an organization which campaigns for or against candidates, initiatives, or legislation without working in direct contact with a specific campaign.
CAMPAIGN FINANCE REFORM Buckley v. Valeo: government COULD set limits on campaign contributions. McCain-Feingold Act: limited soft money. Limits:CandidateNational Committee -Individual $2,600$32,400 -National Committee $5,000 - -State Committee $5,000No Limit -PAC $5,000 $32,400 Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission: Allows corporations and other unions unrestricted speech in the promotion of their own political goals. Super PAC: Gives no money directly to any party or candidate, and has no limits on their campaign contributions.