Two-Party System Political Party: an association of voters with broad, common interests who want to influence or control decision making in government by electing the partys candidates to public office. Due to the Electoral College, the U.S. has predominately always adopted a two-party system. Why? Washington, in his farewell address, argued against political parties because he saw them as divisive. Where was the first historical divide in American politics to bring about a two party system?
Historical Roots Federalists= Big Federal Government FederalistsWhigs Republicans (1860) = Protected Rights Democrats (Switch in the 20th century) Anti- Federalists= State Power Democratic Republicans Democrats (1828)= Common man, southern slave holders Republicans (Due to New Deal, Brown v. Board, Womens liberation)
Laissez-Faire Let Do or Hands Free Primarily a politico-economic theory which believes that private citizens should control their economy (private transactions) freely and without the control of the government. No taxes, subsidies, tariffs. Primarily, small government parties lean more towards Laizzez-Faire economic principles.
Third Parties Third Party: A party that challenges the two main parties. Dont win, but they can help change politics How?
1. Bring issues to the publics attention. 2. Effect outcome of elections which forces major parties to adopt their belief systems. Parties: Libertarian Party, Green Party, and Constitution Party Third Parties
Multi-Party System Based on three or more parties. Benefits: more options and ideas to choose Weaknesses: unstable; can lead to radicalism or reactionism (extreme politics) Coalition government: In a majority rule system, a group of parties must cooperate in order to create a majority. (This can lead to compromise or gridlock.
One Party System Only one party to choose to run the government. Also, known as the Single Party System What type of government system does this create?
Political Spectrum Moderate/ Independent Voters LeftRight Leaning towards Democrats Definitely Democrats Radical: Extreme Change Leaning towards Republican s Definitely Republican s Reactionary: Go Back to Tradition
Politics planks: each individual belief of a party (pro-life v. pro-choice) platform: the aggregate of all the planks which encompasses the overall belief system of the party. liberal: usually linked to individual rights (civil and personal), but has become synonymous with big government and progressivism in the United States. conservative: values the preservation of the social traditions and norms.
Organization National Committee: raises money; creates a common platform; directs money; and organizes the National Convention (RNC and DNC) 50 State Committees: Tries to get elected as many candidates within the state as possible; raises and directs money. Ward: A group of precincts Precinct: a geographical area which contains a specific number of voters. Precinct Captain: Each precinct has a member to organize precinct to vote in favor of the party.
Grassroots Movement: a political organization which is motivated and driven by the local community. Is our system a top down system or a grassroots system? Political Machine: a political system which delivers votes.
Primaries In order for a candidate to be chosen by the party to run in the general election, a primary is help in order for the parties to choose their candidates. Presidential Primary: delegates choose presidential nominee. delegate: representatives of the party to cast a vote for a nominee at the convention superdelegates (democrats only): an elected official who receives votes to distribute to the candidate of their choice at the convention.