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Emotional and Social Development from 1 to 3

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1 Emotional and Social Development from 1 to 3
Chapter 11 Emotional and Social Development from 1 to 3

2 Chapter Objectives IDENTIFY the factors that contribute to a child’s emotional development DESCRIBE six specific emotions children ages 18 months to 3-years show LIST the four signs of a healthy relationship between parents and a child IDENTIFY four ways to help children get adequate sleep COMPARE AND CONTRAST parallel play and cooperative play LIST six ways to help children develop social skills EXPLAIN the purpose of guidance

3 Emotional Development from 1 to 3
Chapter 11.1

4 Emotional Patterns Emotional development tends to go in cycles throughout childhood Especially noticeable during this age group New emotions are developed Periods of frustration and rebellion Periods of happiness, calmness, and stability

5 Individual Differences
There are general patterns to how children develop emotionally Very noticeable between 1st and 3rd birthdays Emotional development depends on 2 factors The child’s experiences The child’s temperament Temperament is the way a child reacts to other people and events

6 Eighteen (18) Months Self-centered
Refers to the thinking about one’s own needs and wants and not those of others Caregivers begin teaching a child that some desires will not be met right away Spoken instructions are not always successful for children at this age “No” is a favorite word

7 18 Months- Negativism Negativism is normal for a young toddler
Negativism means doing the opposite of what others want Number of causes The desire for independence Children want the chance to make the decision Frustration Toddlers want to do more than their bodies will allow The realizations of being a separate person Exciting and frightening Still want a tight bond with caregivers Battle of Wills between parents and caregivers Preventing conflicts Eliminate as many restrictions Put fragile objects away instead of saying “don’t touch”

8 18 Months- Positive Guidance
Positive guidance can help deal with a child that is negative Give choices “Which will you pick up first- the books or the toys?” Redirect the Child Distract the child from the issue that is causing the negative response EX: Julia was having trouble stacking blocks. Mom asked if she wanted to read a book Encourage Talking “What’s wrong?” or “Don’t you like that?”

9 18 Months-Temper Tantrums
Temper tantrum is when a child releases anger or frustration by screaming crying kicking and pounding sometimes holding their breath Sometimes occur till ages 3 or 4 Try to help the child find a calmer way of expressing feelings Handling Tantrums Distract the child with a toy or pointing out an activity elsewhere One at home? Try to ignore it One in public? Take the child to a quiet spot to cool down Remain calm and speak quietly but firmly Acknowledge the child’s feelings and restate why the child’s demands cannot be met Set limits Keep toddlers from hurting themselves or others Praise the child for calming down after

10 2 Years Less at odds with the world than 18-month-olds
Speech and motor skills have improved Understands more Able to wait longer for various needs to be met Express love and affection freely Seeks approval and praise Easier to reason with Get along better with parents and caregivers More outgoing and friendly Less self-centered

11 2½ Year Olds This period may seem more difficult than the 18-month- old stage Learning so much that they become overwhelmed Ability to understand exceeds their physical ability to complete tasks EX: A child wants to stack blocks high but might accidentally knock them down prior to finishing the structure Struggle with immaturity and need for independence Sensitive about being bossed, shown, helped, or directed Stubborn, dominant, and demanding Moods change rapidly Need for consistency Routines Feel both independent and dependent Need flexible limits rather than hard rules

12 3 Years Old Happier than 2-1/2 year olds Physically more capable
Less frustrated More willing to take directions Modify their behavior for praise and affection Few temper tantrums Love to talk Often will tell caregivers about their entire day Talks to toys, playmates, and imaginary friends

13 3½ Year Olds Try to show security by controlling their environment
May issue demands “I want to sit on the floor and eat lunch” “Talk to me!” Self-confident as a 3 year old but becomes very insecure at 3-1/2 Fears are common at this age Afraid of the dark Imaginary monsters Strangers Loud Noises Emotional tension and insecurity shows in physical ways to self-sooth Sucking thumbs Biting nails

14 Specific Emotions-Anger
Normal emotion A child’s way of reacting to frustration Changes over the years Not as violent Target of a child’s anger changes in these years as well 18-month-old does not direct anger at an object or person 2-3 year olds will hold a person or object responsible for their frustration Toddlers can become aggressive Use these tips Use words Speak calmly Take deep breaths Have angry child rest for a while Angry outbursts are more frequent in insecure and anxious children

15 Specific Emotions-Fear
Children will have specific fears at different times Some fears are useful in keeping children away from dangerous situations Other fears must be overcome in order to develop healthy Phobias are unexplainable and illogical fears Fear of heights or public speaking Develop in children that are shy and withdrawn Adults can pass phobias down Separation anxiety is the fear of being away from a parent, familiar caregivers, or the normal environment Tips to deal with fear: Offer support and understanding Encourage children to talk about their fears Sometimes its best to accept the fear and avoid trying to force the child to confront it Read books about children having fears Make unfamiliar situations more secure Teach the child how to control frightening situations

16 Specific Emotions-Jealousy
Emotion that usually crops up during the child’s 2nd year Reaches its peak around age 3 A child may show resentment of affection between parents because the child cannot understand that parents have love that can go all around Sibling rivalry is the competition between brothers and sisters for parent’s affection and attention Some become jealous when a new baby is born May revert to old ways or act out Tips for dealing with sibling rivalry Make sure each child feels love and appreciation Set aside one-on-one time with each child Avoid making comments that compare children Let the children take turns in choosing activities Make it clear that you will not accept one child tattling to get another one in trouble Talk to children about their feelings of jealousy

17 Specific Emotions- Love, Affection, and Empathy
Love and affection feelings are expressed more clearly during this stage Empathy is the ability to understand how another person feels Usually develops between 12 and 18 months A child may talk to another child that is unhappy If a child does something to hurt another child, talk to the child by taking an active approach

18 Emotional Adjustment Children’s emotional development needs to be assessed to make sure they are on the right track. But how? Signs that a child has a healthy relationship between his or her parents Seeks approval or praise Turns to parents and caregivers for comfort and help Tells caregivers about significant events so they can share their joy and sorrow Accepts limits and discipline without too much resistance Also look at a child’s relationship with siblings

19 Promote Positive Self-Concept
Self-concept is how people see themselves Different from self-esteem; self-esteem is how highly you value yourself Children form self-concept in response to the actions, attitudes, and comments of others Young children believe what others say about them To build positive self-concept Do not talk negatively to children (EX: telling them they are bad) Mastery of skills Give toddlers many chances to explore their world

20 Discourage Negative Behavior
Some parents worry that correcting a child’s behavior will negatively affect their self-concept. WRONG. By teaching and praising young children for appropriate behaviors, self-concept is enhanced Effective ways to discourage negative behavior: Explore feelings Read stories to a child or watch children’s videos together Acknowledge feelings When a playmate takes a toy, hitting or grabbing is a natural response Offer alternative explanations to deter negative behavior Give Choices

21 Sleep and Emotional Behavior
Sleep disturbances are normal for this age group Some have trouble falling asleep or staying asleep Fears are a frequent cause of sleep problems Bedtime routines and a reminder that a parent is close by

22 Importance of Sleep Adequate Sleep Sleep Cycles Sleep is essential to good physical and emotional health Sleep deprived means lacking adequate sleep Affects a child’s temperament Ability to complete simple tasks Less alert, inattentive, and even hyperactive 12-14 hours of sleep REM sleep is a sleep cycle characterized by rapid eye movement Light sleep during which dreams occur NREM sleep is a cycle of sleep in which rapid eye movement does not occur Deep sleep Children are more likely to wake during REM sleep Newborns have a short sleep cycle and can go through an entire cycle of REM and NREM in about an hour

23 Prevent Sleep Deprivation
Determine a child’s best bedtime Limit toys in the bed Establish a bedtime routine Keep bedtime pleasant

24 Social Development from 1-3
Chapter 11.2


26 General Social Patterns
Socialization is the process of learning to get along with others Skills stay with them throughout their lives Individual differences may influence when, and in what order social skills are learned

27 18 Months Some independence from family
Closest relationships continue to be those with their families Toddlers need to learn about the outside world Other opportunities with children Do not really interact with one another much Parallel Play is when children play near but not actually with each other Seem to treat other people more as objects than humans Satisfying strong desires without regard with those that may interfere Conflicts over toys that result in screaming, hitting, biting, or hair pulling Can understand that their actions have consequences

28 2 Years Especially good at understanding and interacting with main caregivers Can read caregivers moods Able to communicate well with others Fun playing with someone else Engage in parallel play Idea of sharing and taking turns Like to please other people

29 2 ½ Year Olds Negativism carries over to social development
May refuse to do something for one person but will do that task for another Begin to learn about the rights of others Social play is still parallel and works best with only two children Frequent but quick fights during play

30 3 Years Old Will share, help, or do things another person’s way just to please them Cooperative Play is a type of play in which children play and interact with one another Work together in small groups Caregivers are still important but are no longer all-powerful in children’s social lives

31 3 ½ Year Olds Children’s play becomes more complex and includes more conversation Disagreements with playmates occur less often Use several different strategies to resolve conflicts Increased ability to evaluate friendships “I don’t like Abby to come here. She doesn’t play nice” Take more notice of what others are like Start to compare themselves with other children

32 Social Developmental Milestones
Age Developmental Milestone 1 Year Plays alone but near others, dislikes sharing, desires approval, fears some strangers 2 Years Engages in parallel play, plays simple games with others, bosses other children, says “Please” if prompted 3 Years Engages in some cooperative play, takes turns, likes to help, shows affection

33 Making Friends Important and normal to social development
A child who is comfortable with others and usually develop normally If a child is unable or unwilling to make friends, its important to look closer and discover the cause and take steps to help Need contact with other people This is how they learn to socialize When young children spend most of their time with adults, they don’t learn how to connect to children their age Need to learn the rough-and-tumble friendship of other children

34 Social Skills Establish a basic set of rules to guide social behavior
“No throwing toys” or “Don’t hit people” Model good social skills Help children understand and respect others’ feelings Show a child pictures of different expressions and ask the child to guess how they are feeling Show respect for other people’s belongings “We shouldn’t touch grandma’s vase. If it breaks she would be sad” Show children how to use words rather than physically striking out Help children learn specific social skills How to share toys or taking turns

35 Imaginary Friends Perfectly normal
Can last for several months starting at 2 years until 3 or 4 years of age Can be in human or animal or fantasy form Helps children experiment with different feelings For other, the imaginary friend mirrors what the child does Typically will fade away

36 Guiding Behavior Guidance means using firmness and understanding to help children learn self- discipline Self-discipline is the ability of children to control their own behavior Helps children learn how to get along with each other and to handle their own feelings Helps aid in moral development Approaches: Consider the unique personality, child’s age, stage of development, and ability to understand Consistency Clear rules and apply them to all situations

37 1 year to 15 Months Distracting children and physically removing them from forbidden activities or places is best for this age Cannot understand adult reasoning

38 15 Months to 2 Years Require spoken restrictions as well as a distraction “lets take our cars to the backyard. The driveway is not a safe place to play” A child may have to be reminded of the restriction a few times but will eventually understand

39 2 to 3 Years 2 Years 3 Years Usually able to understand spoken commands and simple explanations Grasp reasoning of adults “Kerri, you need to get dressed now because Grandma will be here soon. Do you need help?” Accept reasonable, loving guidance more readily than children of other ages Like to please Will remind a parent when they are being good “Look, I put on my rain boots today because its raining. See my clean shoes? I’m a good boy, right?”

40 Set Limits Helps a child learn self-regulation and self-discipline
State limits clearly Telling Kyle he may have a small snack does not set a clear limit Setting limits includes 4 steps Show an understanding of the child’s desire “I know you think it is fun to draw on the wall” Set the limit and explain it “But you may not draw on the wall because it’s hard to clean” Acknowledge the child’s feelings “I know you like drawing on the walls but walls are not for drawing” Give alternatives “If you want to draw, you may draw on this paper Or you can play with your blocks.”

41 Encourage Independence
Autonomy means independence Have realistic expectations When a child is learning to self-feed; use unbreakable dishes When learning how to dress, choose clothes that are easy to put on and take off Using their own towel, washcloth, or toothbrush Step stools in the bathroom Start with simple household tasks Putting away toys, simple chores (sorting and folding laundry) Be patient and encourage, never forcing a child to do something

42 Promote Sharing Helpful tips:
Engage children in activities that require them to share Place them in situations where they must take turns Limit the materials available for an activity so that a child has to share Have children take turns handing out snacks or other classroom duties Make clear what behavior you are trying to encourage Recognize and praise a child for sharing Sharing is not an equal experience for all children Having an attachment to a stuffed animal

43 Dealing with Aggressive Behavior
Behavior is a form of communication Inappropriate behavior shows that a child is upset or that some need is not being met

44 Biting Children bite for different reasons
Infants don’t see the difference between chewing on a toy or a sibling 1 year olds may bite to discover what happens 2 and 3 year olds may bite to get their way Angry or frustrated Determine what is causing the biting Teething baby?

45 Hitting, Kicking, and Shoving
2 and 3 year olds have trouble controlling these impulses or aggressive reactions to emotions The part of the brain that controls these emotions is not yet developed REMINDER: Children are self-centered so when they do not get their way they become angry or frustrated

46 To Time-Out or not to Time-Out?
Child development experts believe that time-outs are an effective way to help children understand what behaviors are not acceptable Time-outs are when a child is removed from the group and required to spend that time in a special area Can also be given if a toddler is upset and its now time to cool off

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