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Social and Emotional Development

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Presentation on theme: "Social and Emotional Development"— Presentation transcript:

1 Social and Emotional Development
(ages 1-3)

2 General Emotional Development
Emotional Development: the process of learning to recognize and express one’s feelings and learning to establish one’s identity and individuality Each child goes through emotional development cycles independently Children of this age start to experience negativism, rebellion, happiness, calmness, stability, and inner peace

3 Eighteen Months Self centered Learning that some desires will not
be met immediately or ever (patience) Spoken instructions are not very successful Negativism: doing the opposite of what others want Desire for independence, saying “no” Self awareness: to understand that one is separate and independent from another Distraction can be a way of coping with inappropriate behaviours Temper tantrums are more frequent

4 Two Years Improved speech and motor skills, relieving frustration
Understands more patience Expresses love and affection, seeks approval and praise Fewer emotional out bursts Improved relationships with parents and other children More outgoing, friendly, and less self -centered

5 Two and One-Half Years Comprehension and desires exceed physical abilities Drive for independence causes them to resist pressures to conform Don't like being bossed, shown, helped or directed Moods change rapidly Desire for consistency to cope with the confusing world; helps build security and confidence Need more flexible and adaptable limitations rather than hard and fast rules

6 Three Years Generally sunny and cooperative and are learning to be considerate More physically able/less frustration Take directions, take pride in tasks they can perform for others Eager for praise and affection, willing to modify their behaviour in order to achieve those responses Fewer temper tantrums Likes to talk to everything Uses imagination Responds to others talking and follows basic instructions

7 Three and One-Half Years
More insecure Fears are more common May develop tensional habits such as thumb-sucking, nail biting, or nose picking. Try to ensure their own security by controlling their environment, this can make them more demanding

8 Specific Emotions Express emotions openly until age 2 or 3
Control emotional expressions Learn socially acceptable ways of displaying feelings ex. Using words Emotions become more specific as they grow older Common emotions; anger, fear, jealousy, affection, and sympathy

9 Anger More targeted at person or thing causing the problem
Children express anger differently They start to use their words Frequency of anger decreases with age Children with parents who are overly critical or inconsistent become frustrated easily and show anger Parents should make sure that demands on the child are both limited and reasonable as they try to help the child learn self control

10 Fear Fears are related to factors such as physical condition, mental development; temperament, feelings of security and ability to cope with daily life Children can pick up fears from parents Separation anxiety: fear of being away from parents familiar caregivers, or normal environment Ensure that they are safe and secure Generalized fears can be caused by specific incidents - avoid shaming a child for his/her fears - encourage child to talk about fears and listen - offer honest, understandable explanations for situations that might have frightened the child - nightmares can be vivid. Help child separate reality from fantasy - make unfamiliar situations more secure with your presence - discuss new experiences in advance - teach the child how to control the frightening situation - be supportive and understanding

11 Jealousy Recognizable in second year
Most common cause of jealousy in early childhood is resentment of affection between parents Sibling rivalry: competition between siblings for their parents affection and attention Child may show off, act inappropriate, revert to baby like behaviours, such as bed wetting, thumb sucking, or baby talk Tips to encourage children to develop good relationships with new siblings Spend time alone with older child Compliments Give older child extra love and attention

12 Love and affection Must learn through experience and practice to love
First comes love of those who satisfy the babies physical needs The sense of comfort, safety, confidence and encouragement later becomes more important than physical needs Child who is overly dependent on parents/caregivers has difficulty forming other relationships Supportive relationships with parents, adults, and friends also help children develop trust, empathy, compassion, and a sense of right and wrong.

13 Sympathy Self awareness: to understand that one is separate and independent from others. This helps children start to develop sympathy Show little sympathy until age 2 Happy children show more sympathy than a child whose relationships are less satisfactory Age 3 tries to comfort the other person The ability to actually understand others feelings develop later

14 Evaluating emotional development
Signs of healthy relationship between child and parents Seeks approval and praise from parents Turns to parents for comfort and help Tells parents about significant events Accepts limits/ discipline with unusual resistance

15 General Social Patterns
Social Development: the process of learning to interact with others and to express oneself to others socialization: process of learning to get along with others Certain social characteristics and tasks can be expected at different ages

16 Eighteen Months Begin to develop some independence from the family
Play independently near, but not actually playing with others Often treats people more as objects Their may be conflict over toys

17 Two Years Good at understanding and interacting with primary caregiver
Can read caregivers moods When speech develops, child can try and communicate with others Find it fun to have someone to play with and enjoy being with others Most are still not able to share or take turns Like to please people

18 Two and one half years Negativism characteristic carries over children's social relationship Begin to learn about the rights of others Social play works best with only two children More easy-going with other toddlers

19 Three Years People are important to children of this age
Share, help, or do things another person’s way to please someone Start interacting and cooperating with others while playing Can work together in small groups to do stuff Ex: Build blocks, play dolls, fit puzzles together Most children at the age of 3 seek friends on their own More sure of themselves, less easily frustrated Experience gives them confidence in themselves and in their own relationships with others

20 Three and one half years
Experienced in cooperative play, becomes more complex and includes more conversation Enjoy companionship, know to share Friendships are not always long-lasting and often change rapidly depending on the needs of the child

21 Respecting Individual Personalities
Parents need to respect their child's individuality A young child's self concept depends on how well the child feels accepted by other people

22 The sensitive child Prefer to be alone much of the time
Generally have a longer attention span than other children Often lack assertiveness to stand-up for own rights and desires Less adventurous and hold back from new experiences Less tolerance for conflict Especially frightened of strangers Parents must help them meet new situations with less reluctance Over protecting them doesn't help encourage independence Should be aloud to explore Small tasks help them build confidence Don't hurry the children, allow them to take their own time Allow them to adjust gradually to groups of children

23 The placid child Typically play happily with siblings and friends
Outgoing & respond to others easily Take guidance well Enjoy accepting responsibility for routine tasks; eating, dressing, bathing Need encouragement and praise

24 The aggressive child Usually energetic and noisy
Inclined towards active, physical play Take toys they want from other children Often kick, bite, or hit to get their own way or cry or throw a temper tantrum Praise is useful to guide these toddlers Self assertive children are usually leaders rather than followers Parents need to clarify desirable and acceptable behaviour goals for aggressive children

25 Making Friends Friendships are important to normal social development
If child is unwilling to make friends you should check up on that. Crucial for developing life long social skills Learn to cope with rough play Best to start playing together young, especially if only child Children need to learn to solve disagreements Know when to step in and help compromise and consider feelings

26 Developing a good self-concept
Basic attitudes about oneself are formed in early childhood The way you feel about yourself affects your relationships with other people Positive self concept: inclination to see oneself as good, worthwhile and capable Negative self concept: inclination to see oneself as bad, unimportant, and incapable Parents are the biggest influence on a child's self concept Exploring a safe environment helps build a positive self concept Sensible limits help the child learn what they can do Children with a positive self concept get along better with others Children accept what others say about them is true Children who think they are good, try and act the part

27 Discipline The task of helping children to learn to behave in acceptable ways Children repeat behaviour that brings approval Self discipline: the ability to control ones own behaviour 8-12 months: distractions 12-15 months: keep unsafe objects away, remove the child from forbidden activities, distract them 15-20 months: distraction, removal, and spoken restrictions 2-3 years: explain your reasons 3-4 years: reasonable, loving commands

28 Discipline Tips Desired behaviour best taught through example
Fewer requests, reasonable and age appropriate Be consistent, parents should agree on methods Carry out all promises, follow through with the appropriate natural or logical consequences Look at situations from the Childs point of view Keep explanations simple and brief Be prepared to repeat Not an outlet for an adults anger All children need love and guidance

29 Bibliography "IECER - The Institute for Early Childhood Education and Research - Faculty of Education." IECER - The Institute for Early Childhood Education and Research - Faculty of Education. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb <>. "ZERO TO THREE: Development of Social-Emotional Skills ." ZERO TO THREE: Homepage. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb <>. "Early Childhood Emotional and Social Development: Emotional Expressiveness and Understanding - Child Development and Parenting in Early Childhood." Mental Health, Depression, Anxiety, Wellness, Family & Relationship Issues, Sexual Disorders & ADHD Medications. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb <>.

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