Presentation on theme: "Emotional Development from One to Three"— Presentation transcript:
1Emotional Development from One to Three Chap 11.1
2Writing Activity Temper Tantrum Imagine that a toddler is having a temper tantrum. She is frustrated that she cannot have her way. Write a poem about the tantrum. Make your poem funny or serious, but be sure it expresses emotion.Writing tips – remember that not all poems rhyme. Here are some tips to help you get started:Use language that creates interesting imagesUse emotion packed wordsYour poem should have a tempo or rhythm. Try settingyour poem to music!
3photoEven toddlers enjoy playing around other children. What do you think these children are learning from each other?
4Emotional Patterns Go in cycles throughout childhood Pronounced in children 1 to 3Frustration, rebellion, happiness, calmness, stabilityNew emotions: jealousyAlternates between negative and positive periodsDepends on 2 factors: child’s experiences and the child’s temperment
5Individual differences Noticeable between 1st and 4th birthdayDue in part to the different experiences that each child hasEx. Only child differ from triplet who differ from 1 of 5Also result of the child’s temperament – the way the child naturally responds to other people and eventsIntense child may become more frustrated than an adaptable childA perceptive (observant) child may show more empathy than one who is less perceptive
6Family membersEach member of a family is an individual. What are some ways that the emotional needs of a parent are different from those of a two year old?
7Eighteen monthsChildren have become self-centered – refers to thinking about one’s own needs and wants and not those of othersUp to now caregivers have promptly meet the child’s needs and desiresNow parents start to teach that some desires will not be met right away and some request will never be metYoung toddlers are likely to do the opposite of what is asked and their favorite response to everything is “no” – that allows them to feel some control over his or her world
8Temper tantrumsToddlers go through negative periods as well as positive ones. What are some causes of negativism?
9Negativism – doing the opposite of what others want CausesThe desire for independenceSaying “no” is their way of saying “let me decide for myself”FrustrationThey want to do more than their bodies are able to do and they don’t have the language to express all their feelings so they just simply and emphatically say “no!”The realization of being a separate personIs exciting and frightening. They welcome the power and independence of being a separate person but they still want a tight bond with their primary caregiver
10Strategies to help prevent conflicts (battle of wills between child and parent) Give choicesInstead of saying “pick up your books and toys” ask “Which will you pick up first – the books or the toys?”Redirect the childJulia was having trouble stacking blocks so her mother suggested that they read a book insteadEncourage talkingAsk “what is wrong” or “Don’t you like that?” – encourage them to share what they are feeling
11Temper tantrumsRelease anger or frustration by screaming, crying, kicking, pounding, and sometimes holding their breath.Begins around 18 months and continues until age three or fourOften have when tired or frustratedGiving into tantrums teaches them how to get their way and it also makes them more likely to have tantrums
12Handling TantrumsIf a tantrum is about to begin, try to avoid it. Distract the child with a toy or by pointing out an activity going on elsewhereIf a child has a tantrum at home, try ignoring itIf a child has a tantrum in public, take the child to a quiet spot to cool downAlways remain calm and speak quietly et firmlyAcknowledge the child’s feeling and restate why the child’s demands cannot be metAdhere to set limitsKeep toddlers from hurting themselves or othersOnce the tantrum is over, praise the child for calming down
13Take chargeWith a partner, create a skit about how you would handle a two year old having a temper tantrum at the mall
14Two years old Less at odds with the world than 18 month old Speech and motor skills have improved – easing some frustrationThey understand more and is able to wait longer for various needs to be metExpress love and affection freelySeeks approval and praiseFewer and less intense emotional outburstsEasier to reason withGet along better with parents and other childrenMore outgoing and friendlyLess self-centered
15Two and one-half yearsJust as you adjust to a smoother, less intense toddler, the child enters another difficult stageNot as easily distractedLearning so much they often feel overwhelmedTheir desires and ability to understand tasks exceeds their physical ability to performThey may know what they want to say but can not always say it clearlyTheir frustrations may boil overStruggle with immaturity and a powerful need for independence which causes them to resist pressures to conformSensitive about being bossed, shown, helped, or directed during this stageThey can be stubborn, demanding and domineeringTheir moods change rapidly and within a short time they can become lovable and completely charmingNeed for consistency – they want the same routines, carrier out the same way, every day – how they cope with confusing world and helps them build confidence and a feeling of securityFeel both independent and dependentSometimes they seek help and other times they want to do it themselvesRequire love and patience, especially when their behavior is neither lovable nor patientNeed flexible limits rather than hard and fast rules
16Three years Happier nature More cooperative Learning to be considerate More physically capable and therefore less frustratedMore willing to take directions from othersThey will modify their behavior to win the praise and affection they craveFewer temper tantrumsLike to talk – to their toys, their playmates, themselves, and their imaginary friendsWant to tell parents all about their dayRespond when others talk to themCan be reasoned withCan be controlled by words
17Three and one-half years Have suddenly become very insecureParents may feel the child is going backward rather than forward emotionallyFears are common – the dark, imaginary monsters, strangers, loud noisesEmotional tension and insecurity show up in physical ways – thumb sucking, nail biting, stumble or stutterTry to ensure their own security by controlling their environment – “I want to sit on the floor to eat lunch!” or “talk to me!”
18Expert adivce“emotional well-being and social competence provide a strong foundation for emerging cognitive abilities, and together they are the bricks and mortar that comprise the foundation of human development.”The science of early childhood development, national scientific council on the developing child
19It is important to keep in mind these differences in temperament when teaching children how to control their emotions
20Most young children go through predictable stages in their emotional development. How do children typically change between eigtheen months and two years of age
21An emotional roller coaster Eighteen monthsThe eighteen month old is defiant, trying to establish some control over her lifeTwo yearsThe two year old is affectionate and may often be in the caregivers wayTwo and one-half yearsAt two and one-half, the child may feel overwhelmed. Frustration the becomes angerThree yearsThe three year old is generally a happy child who is eager to helpThree and one-half yearsAt three and one-half years, a child is often bothered by fears
22Specific emotionsChildren express emotions openly until 2 or 3 and then begin to learn socially acceptable ways of displaying feelingsAngerFearJealousyLove and affectionempathy
23Anger Child’s way of reacting to frustration By 3 they are less violent and explosive – so less likely to hit or kickUse name calling, pouting or scoldingAnger directed more towards object or person they hold responsible for their frustrationMost causes temporarySick, tired, uncomfortable, hungry, don’t get own way - frustrations leads to angerSometimes anger is expressed as aggressionOver toys they are trying to figure out how to get alongCertain factors can cause more anger than normalParents overly critical or inconsistent, has not learned self controlMake sure demands on child limited and reasonable
24Tips to handling anger Use words Speak calmly Take deep breaths Rather than hitting or lashing out, children and adults should try to express feeling with wordsSpeak calmlyDon’t scream or yellTake deep breathsHave child take a few deep breaths to calm downHave the child rest for awhile – then discuss misbehavior and any punishment once the child has calmed down (make sure explain what they should have done)Don’t respond with anger it only makes the situation worse and sets a poor example
25Dealing with misbehavior Discussing misbehavior and punishment is easier once a child has calmed down. What are three acceptable ways of handling anger?
26fear Different at different ages 1 frightened of strangers3 frightened of the darkSome fears useful as they keep them from dangerous dituationsPhobia – an unexplainable and illogical fear2 Most common: fear of heights and public speakingMore likely to develop in children who are shy and withdrawnSometimes adults pass their fears to their children (Do you have any of the same fears as your parents?)Separation anxiety – fear of being away from parents, familiar caregivers, or the normal environment12 to 18 months when parents eave to go to work or run errand or when go to bed in a room different than their parentsDon’t feel guilt – remember it just shows they are attached to youTell the child when you will be back and give them something special for safe keeping until you return like a blanket or stuffed animal
27How to deal with fears Offer support and understanding Encourage children to talk about their fearsSometimes it is best to accept the fear and avoid trying to force the child to comfort itRead books together about a child who experiences fearMake unfamiliar situations more secureTeach the child how to control frightening situations
28Parenting skills Managing changes in a child’s routine Toddlers and preschoolers find a sense of security in a predictable routine. When their routine is changed, some become anxious. Transitions fom one activity to the next are also difficult for some children this age. The following tips can be helpful.Make time for transitionsWarn children ahead of time of changes in activities. For example let a child know it is time to leave in five minutes. This notice helps gives them a sense of control and securityFamiliarize children with the unfamiliarGive them time to check out new places and people. For example visit their school a day before their first dayBe as clear and consistent as possibleThey find security in the predictability of adults reactions when the rules are clear and caregivers respond to them consistenty
29Take chargeProviding children with predictable routines is an important parenting skill. Write a paragraph explaining how you would provide a child with a predictable bedtime routine.
30jealousy During 2nd year (peaks about 3) Sometimes parents are the targetResent love and affection between parents because they don’t understand that parents have enough love for everyoneSibling rivalry – the competition between brothers or sisters for parents’ affection and attentionOften when new baby bornThey will try to get more attention – show off, act inappropriately, go back to baby like behaviors (bed wetting, baby talk) because they are afraid of losing the parents love (give them more affection and reassurance not punishment)Many experts suggest not leaving toddler alone with new baby
31How to cut down on sibling rivarly Make sure each child feels love and appreciationSet aside one on one time with each childAvoid making comments that compare one child to anotherLet the children take turns in choosing activities, such as a game the family plays together or a movie to watchMake it clear that you will not accept ne child tattling to get another one in troubleTalk to children about their jealous, how hard it can be to have siblings, and how lucky they are to have each other
32Toddlers and jealousyA new baby sometimes causes jealousy in a toddler. What are some ways parents can help prevent sibling rivalry?
33Love and affection Must learn to love As they grow it expands to include siblings, pets and people outside the homeLoving relationships between parents or other caregivers and children need to be strong but not smotheringA child who depends entirely on caregivers for love has difficulty forming other relationships
34Showing affectionYoung children gradually learn to show love and affection for others. Have you seen a young child try to comfort someone who seemed unhappy?
35Empathy – the ability to understand how another person feels They learn that their actions can hurt othersThey may pat a child who is unhappyGive a stuffed animal to a friend/sibling to help them cheer up
36Individual traitsEvery child devel9ops in a unique way because of his or her individual traits. How can caregivers help children develop empathy of other people.
37Emotional adjustmentSigns that child has a healthy relationship with his or her parents:Seeks approval and praiseTurns to parents and caregivers for comfort and helpTells caregivers about significant events so they can share in the joy and sorrowAccepts limits and discipline without too much resisitanceAlso their relationship with siblings (should not be continuously and bitterly at odds with them)
38Emotional adjustmentPromote positive self-concept – how people see themselves (self esteem is how highly you value yourself)Positive : see themselves as good and capableNegative : see themselves as bad or unable to do tasksParents strongest influence but also mastery of skills so give them a chance to explore their worldRemember self confidence lead to positive self-conceptDiscourage negative behaviorExplore feelingsread stories to a child or watch children’s videos togetherAcknowledge feelingsEveryone gets angry sometimes but it is not okay to hurt people (responses to child who hits when playmate takes their toy)Give choicesOffer simple choices to empower them (what shirt would you like to wear) and give them a sense of control
39Giving praiseIt is important that young children have a good relationship with parents and their caregivers. Why is it important that young children receive love from parents and caregivers?
40Sleep and emotional behavior The importance of adequate sleepSleep cyclesREM sleep – a sleep cycle characterized by rapid eye movement. This is a light sleep where dreams occurNREM sleep – a cycle of sleep in which rapid eye movement does not occur. It is a deep sleepPrevent sleep deprivationDetermine a child’s best bedtimePeople need different amounts of sleepLimit toys in the bedToys signal playtime not sleep timeEstablish a bedtime routineFollow every night: bath brush teeth, bedtime story, bedKeep bedtime pleasantTalk and cuddle with the childTry a backrub
41After you read1. describe the changes in emotions that occur in children between ages three and three and one-half years2. explain the difference between self-concept and self-esteem3. identify what separation anxiety is and at what age it typically becomes the strongest4. summarize what parents can do to minimize sibling rivalry
42After you read continued… 5. (ELS) Locate a book for young children that deals with emotional issues such as a fear of the dark or a new baby in the family. Write a paragraph evaluating the book. Do you think it would help a young child?6. (science) Conduct research to learn more about sleep cycles and the differences between REM and NREM sleep. Write a report describing what you have learned. You may wish to include charts in your report.