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Basic Psychoanalytic & Psychodynamic Techniques

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1 Basic Psychoanalytic & Psychodynamic Techniques
Mentoring CPD & Supervision

2 The Theory Bit Psychodynamics
Developed by Freud during his work from 1890 to 1930 Continued in the work of Jung (1964); Adler (1927); Erikson (1950) Kline The psychodynamic perspective includes all the theories in psychology that see human functioning as based on the interaction of drives and forces (these are often believed to be unconscious) .(Particularly unconscious between the different structures of the personality.

3 Main Theoretical Assumptions
Personality Development The mind is made up of three parts the ID, EGO and SUPER-EGO. Personality is shaped as drives are modified by different conflicts at different times in childhood (often psychosexual development). Motivation Behaviour and feelings are powerfully affected by unconscious motives. Adult’s behaviour and feelings are rooted in childhood experiences. All behaviour has a cause (usually unconscious), even slips of the tongue. Therefore, all behaviour is determined. This is called Psychic Determinism.

4 Continued Behaviour is motivated by two instinctual drives:
Eros (the sex drive & life instinct) and Thanatos (the aggressive drive & death instinct). Both these drives come from the “id”. Parts of the unconscious mind (the id and superego) are in constant conflict with the conscious part of the mind (the ego).

5 Structure of the Psyche
Conscious Mind - consists of all the mental processes of which we are aware. The unconscious mind contains biologically based instincts for the primitive urges (ie sex, aggression). We have no idea of what information is stored in the unconscious mind. . Conscious Mind - consists of all the mental processes of which we are aware. (ie, feeling thirsty at this moment and decide to get a drink) The unconscious contains all sorts of significant and disturbing material which we need to keep out of awareness because they are too threatening to acknowledge fully. They are powerful so are kept buried

6 Continue The preconscious or subconscious contains thoughts and feelings that a person is not currently aware of, but which can easily be brought to consciousness. It exists just below the level of consciousness before the unconscious mind. (ie you are presently not thinking about your mobile telephone number, but now it is mentioned you can recall it with ease).

7 Personality: Psychosexual Stages
Five stages of human development. During each stage there is a crisis, that if not successfully managed will cause fixation. Fixation in adulthood is demonstrated through a child like approach to gratifying the associated id impulses

8 The Stages & Conflicts Oral Stage Anal Stage Birth – 2 years.
Energy is focused orally as the world is explored through the mouth Conflict - successful weaning Fixation manifests in smoking, overeating etc Anal Stage 18 months to 3 years Energy is focused in the anus as the world is explored through toilet training Conflict – Successfully negotiating toilet training Fixation manifests in Anal Retentive Personality (excessively tidy), parsimoniousness and obstinacy or an Anal Expulsive Personality (excessively messy).

9 Continued Phallic Stage From 3 years onward
Energy focus is in the genital area as interest grows in gaining pleasure from the genitals Conflict – Oedipal complex (boys); Electra Complex (Girls) Fixation - phallic character, who is reckless, resolute, self-assured and narcissistic (excessively vain and proud.) Or cause fear or the incapacity of close love.

10 Continued Latency Genital
period in which the sexual drive lies dormant. Freud saw latency as a period of unparalleled repression of sexual desires and erogenous impulses. During the latency period, repressed libidal energy is poured into asexual pursuits such as school, athletics, and same-sex friendships Genital From Puberty energy focuses on his genitals and interest turns to heterosexual relationships. Conflict – Unresolved psychosexual development. The less energy left to invest in unresolved psychosexual developments, the greater the capacity to develop normal relationships with the opposite sex. Fixation - particularly on the phallic stage, leads to struggles with further repression and defences.

11 Structure of the Mind Id - a selfish, primitive, childish, pleasure-oriented part of the personality with no ability to delay gratification. Superego - internalized societal and parental standards of "good" and "bad", "right" and "wrong" behaviour. Ego - the moderator between the id and superego which seeks compromises to pacify both. It can be viewed as our "Sense of Self."

12 Conflicts When the id is in conflicts with the superego, the ego utilises Ego Defence Mechanisms. These also occurring when the id impulses are in conflict with each other, and when an external threat is posed to the ego. Ego-defence mechanisms are natural and normal. However, when they get out of proportion, they have a negative affect on our wellbeing.

13 Level 1 Defences These are termed the ‘psychotic’ defence mechanisms
Denial. Distortion Delusional Projection Psychosis - a severe psychological disorder such as schizophrenia)

14 Level 2 Defences These mechanisms lessen distress and anxiety provoked by threatening people or by uncomfortable reality Fantasy Projection Hypochondriasis Passive aggression Idealisation

15 Level 3 Defences These are ‘neurotic’ defences Displacement
Dissociation Isolation Intellectualization Reaction Formation Repression Regression Neurosis - A mild psychological disorder. Psychological trauma can sometimes produce physical complaints: loss of sleep, selective paralysis, overeating.

16 Level 4 Defences Found amongst emotionally healthy adults Altruism
Anticipation Humour Identification Introjection Sublimation Suppression

17 How Psychodynamics Work
A therapeutic alliance is formed Therapist maintains a therapeutic neutrality This encourages the client to make transference and counter transference to the therapist. Transference – early patterns of fantasy and behaviour are unconsciously re-enacted with the therapist This reveals unresolved conflicts patients have with figures from childhoods. Counter transference – the psychotherapist's own repressed feelings in reaction to the emotions, experiences, or problems of a person undergoing treatment.

18 Tools & Techniques Unconditional Acceptance
The symbolic content of psychotic symptoms Analysis of Transference Identification of ego conflicts through analysing defences Identification of unresolved conflicts during psychosexual stages of development Analysis of resistance Empathetic reflection Challenge Free association Dream analysis Slips of the tongue Forgetting Posthypnotic suggestions Rorschach Inkblot Test

19 Psychodynamics & Mentoring
What’s important to mentoring; An understanding of transference An understanding of counter transference An understanding of ego defence mechanisms Understanding resistance Helps us understand ourselves better Helps us understand others

20 Exercise One Working in peer groups for 60 minutes, use questioning and challenging skills to identify: 1 time when you have experienced transference 1 time when you have experienced counter transference 3 times when you have experienced ego defence mechanisms (what ego defence mechanisms were they? What were the circumstances in which they occurred?) 1 time you have experienced resistance

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