The Theory Bit Psychodynamics –Developed by Freud during his work from 1890 to 1930 –Continued in the work of Jung (1964); Adler (1927); Erikson (1950) Kline –The psychodynamic perspective includes all the theories in psychology that see human functioning as based on the interaction of drives and forces (these are often believed to be unconscious)
Main Theoretical Assumptions Personality Development –The mind is made up of three parts the ID, EGO and SUPER- EGO. –Personality is shaped as drives are modified by different conflicts at different times in childhood (often psychosexual development). Motivation –Behaviour and feelings are powerfully affected by unconscious motives. –Adult’s behaviour and feelings are rooted in childhood experiences. –All behaviour has a cause (usually unconscious), even slips of the tongue. Therefore, all behaviour is determined. This is called Psychic Determinism.
Continued Behaviour is motivated by two instinctual drives: –Eros (the sex drive & life instinct) and –Thanatos (the aggressive drive & death instinct). –Both these drives come from the “id”. Parts of the unconscious mind (the id and superego) are in constant conflict with the conscious part of the mind (the ego).
Structure of the Psyche Conscious Mind - consists of all the mental processes of which we are aware. The unconscious mind contains biologically based instincts for the primitive urges (ie sex, aggression). We have no idea of what information is stored in the unconscious mind..
Continue The preconscious or subconscious contains thoughts and feelings that a person is not currently aware of, but which can easily be brought to consciousness. It exists just below the level of consciousness before the unconscious mind. (ie you are presently not thinking about your mobile telephone number, but now it is mentioned you can recall it with ease).
Personality: Psychosexual Stages Five stages of human development. During each stage there is a crisis, that if not successfully managed will cause fixation. Fixation in adulthood is demonstrated through a child like approach to gratifying the associated id impulses
The Stages & Conflicts Oral Stage –Birth – 2 years. –Energy is focused orally as the world is explored through the mouth –Conflict - successful weaning –Fixation manifests in smoking, overeating etc Anal Stage –18 months to 3 years –Energy is focused in the anus as the world is explored through toilet training –Conflict – Successfully negotiating toilet training –Fixation manifests in Anal Retentive Personality (excessively tidy), parsimoniousness and obstinacy or an Anal Expulsive Personality (excessively messy).
Continued Phallic Stage –From 3 years onward –Energy focus is in the genital area as interest grows in gaining pleasure from the genitals –Conflict – Oedipal complex (boys); Electra Complex (Girls) –Fixation - phallic character, who is reckless, resolute, self-assured and narcissistic (excessively vain and proud.) Or cause fear or the incapacity of close love.
Continued Latency –period in which the sexual drive lies dormant. –Freud saw latency as a period of unparalleled repression of sexual desires and erogenous impulses. –During the latency period, repressed libidal energy is poured into asexual pursuits such as school, athletics, and same-sex friendships Genital –From Puberty –energy focuses on his genitals and interest turns to heterosexual relationships. –Conflict – Unresolved psychosexual development. The less energy left to invest in unresolved psychosexual developments, the greater the capacity to develop normal relationships with the opposite sex. –Fixation - particularly on the phallic stage, leads to struggles with further repression and defences.
Structure of the Mind Id - a selfish, primitive, childish, pleasure- oriented part of the personality with no ability to delay gratification. Superego - internalized societal and parental standards of "good" and "bad", "right" and "wrong" behaviour. Ego - the moderator between the id and superego which seeks compromises to pacify both. It can be viewed as our "Sense of Self."
Conflicts –When the id is in conflicts with the superego, the ego utilises Ego Defence Mechanisms. –These also occurring when the id impulses are in conflict with each other, and when an external threat is posed to the ego. –Ego-defence mechanisms are natural and normal. However, when they get out of proportion, they have a negative affect on our wellbeing.
Level 1 Defences These are termed the ‘psychotic’ defence mechanisms –Denial. –Distortion –Delusional Projection –Psychosis - a severe psychological disorder such as schizophrenia)
Level 2 Defences These mechanisms lessen distress and anxiety provoked by threatening people or by uncomfortable reality –Fantasy –Projection –Hypochondriasis –Passive aggression –Idealisation
Level 3 Defences These are ‘neurotic’ defences –Displacement –Dissociation –Isolation –Intellectualization –Reaction Formation –Repression –Regression –Neurosis - A mild psychological disorder. Psychological trauma can sometimes produce physical complaints: loss of sleep, selective paralysis, overeating.
How Psychodynamics Work A therapeutic alliance is formed Therapist maintains a therapeutic neutrality This encourages the client to make transference and counter transference to the therapist. –Transference – early patterns of fantasy and behaviour are unconsciously re-enacted with the therapist –This reveals unresolved conflicts patients have with figures from childhoods. –Counter transference – the psychotherapist's own repressed feelings in reaction to the emotions, experiences, or problems of a person undergoing treatment.
Tools & Techniques Unconditional Acceptance The symbolic content of psychotic symptoms –Analysis of Transference –Identification of ego conflicts through analysing defences –Identification of unresolved conflicts during psychosexual stages of development –Analysis of resistance Empathetic reflection Challenge Free association Dream analysis Slips of the tongue Forgetting Posthypnotic suggestions Rorschach Inkblot Test
Psychodynamics & Mentoring What’s important to mentoring; –An understanding of transference –An understanding of counter transference –An understanding of ego defence mechanisms –Understanding resistance Helps us understand ourselves better Helps us understand others
Exercise One Working in peer groups for 60 minutes, use questioning and challenging skills to identify: –1 time when you have experienced transference –1 time when you have experienced counter transference –3 times when you have experienced ego defence mechanisms (what ego defence mechanisms were they? What were the circumstances in which they occurred?) –1 time you have experienced resistance