2The Theory Bit Psychodynamics Developed by Freud during his work from 1890 to 1930Continued in the work of Jung (1964); Adler (1927); Erikson (1950) KlineThe psychodynamic perspective includes all the theories in psychology that see human functioning as based on the interaction of drives and forces (these are often believed to be unconscious).(Particularly unconscious between the different structures of the personality.
3Main Theoretical Assumptions Personality DevelopmentThe mind is made up of three parts the ID, EGO and SUPER-EGO.Personality is shaped as drives are modified by different conflicts at different times in childhood (often psychosexual development).MotivationBehaviour and feelings are powerfully affected by unconscious motives.Adult’s behaviour and feelings are rooted in childhood experiences.All behaviour has a cause (usually unconscious), even slips of the tongue. Therefore, all behaviour is determined. This is called Psychic Determinism.
4Continued Behaviour is motivated by two instinctual drives: Eros (the sex drive & life instinct) andThanatos (the aggressive drive & death instinct).Both these drives come from the “id”.Parts of the unconscious mind (the id and superego) are in constant conflict with the conscious part of the mind (the ego).
5Structure of the Psyche Conscious Mind - consists of all the mental processes of which we are aware.The unconscious mind contains biologically based instincts for the primitive urges (ie sex, aggression). We have no idea of what information is stored in the unconscious mind..Conscious Mind - consists of all the mental processes of which we are aware. (ie, feeling thirsty at this moment and decide to get a drink)The unconscious contains all sorts of significant and disturbing material which we need to keep out of awareness because they are too threatening to acknowledge fully. They are powerful so are kept buried
6ContinueThe preconscious or subconscious contains thoughts and feelings that a person is not currently aware of, but which can easily be brought to consciousness. It exists just below the level of consciousness before the unconscious mind. (ie you are presently not thinking about your mobile telephone number, but now it is mentioned you can recall it with ease).
7Personality: Psychosexual Stages Five stages of human development.During each stage there is a crisis, that if not successfully managed will cause fixation.Fixation in adulthood is demonstrated through a child like approach to gratifying the associated id impulses
8The Stages & Conflicts Oral Stage Anal Stage Birth – 2 years. Energy is focused orally as the world is explored through the mouthConflict - successful weaningFixation manifests in smoking, overeating etcAnal Stage18 months to 3 yearsEnergy is focused in the anus as the world is explored through toilet trainingConflict – Successfully negotiating toilet trainingFixation manifests in Anal Retentive Personality (excessively tidy), parsimoniousness and obstinacy or an Anal Expulsive Personality (excessively messy).
9Continued Phallic Stage From 3 years onward Energy focus is in the genital area as interest grows in gaining pleasure from the genitalsConflict – Oedipal complex (boys); Electra Complex (Girls)Fixation - phallic character, who is reckless, resolute, self-assured and narcissistic (excessively vain and proud.) Or cause fear or the incapacity of close love.
10Continued Latency Genital period in which the sexual drive lies dormant.Freud saw latency as a period of unparalleled repression of sexual desires and erogenous impulses.During the latency period, repressed libidal energy is poured into asexual pursuits such as school, athletics, and same-sex friendshipsGenitalFrom Pubertyenergy focuses on his genitals and interest turns to heterosexual relationships.Conflict – Unresolved psychosexual development. The less energy left to invest in unresolved psychosexual developments, the greater the capacity to develop normal relationships with the opposite sex.Fixation - particularly on the phallic stage, leads to struggles with further repression and defences.
11Structure of the MindId - a selfish, primitive, childish, pleasure-oriented part of the personality with no ability to delay gratification.Superego - internalized societal and parental standards of "good" and "bad", "right" and "wrong" behaviour.Ego - the moderator between the id and superego which seeks compromises to pacify both. It can be viewed as our "Sense of Self."
12ConflictsWhen the id is in conflicts with the superego, the ego utilises Ego Defence Mechanisms.These also occurring when the id impulses are in conflict with each other, and when an external threat is posed to the ego.Ego-defence mechanisms are natural and normal. However, when they get out of proportion, they have a negative affect on our wellbeing.
13Level 1 Defences These are termed the ‘psychotic’ defence mechanisms Denial.DistortionDelusional ProjectionPsychosis - a severe psychological disorder such as schizophrenia)
14Level 2 DefencesThese mechanisms lessen distress and anxiety provoked by threatening people or by uncomfortable realityFantasyProjectionHypochondriasisPassive aggressionIdealisation
15Level 3 Defences These are ‘neurotic’ defences Displacement DissociationIsolationIntellectualizationReaction FormationRepressionRegressionNeurosis - A mild psychological disorder. Psychological trauma can sometimes produce physical complaints: loss of sleep, selective paralysis, overeating.
16Level 4 Defences Found amongst emotionally healthy adults Altruism AnticipationHumourIdentificationIntrojectionSublimationSuppression
17How Psychodynamics Work A therapeutic alliance is formedTherapist maintains a therapeutic neutralityThis encourages the client to make transference and counter transference to the therapist.Transference – early patterns of fantasy and behaviour are unconsciously re-enacted with the therapistThis reveals unresolved conflicts patients have with figures from childhoods.Counter transference – the psychotherapist's own repressed feelings in reaction to the emotions, experiences, or problems of a person undergoing treatment.
18Tools & Techniques Unconditional Acceptance The symbolic content of psychotic symptomsAnalysis of TransferenceIdentification of ego conflicts through analysing defencesIdentification of unresolved conflicts during psychosexual stages of developmentAnalysis of resistanceEmpathetic reflectionChallengeFree associationDream analysisSlips of the tongueForgettingPosthypnotic suggestionsRorschach Inkblot Test
19Psychodynamics & Mentoring What’s important to mentoring;An understanding of transferenceAn understanding of counter transferenceAn understanding of ego defence mechanismsUnderstanding resistanceHelps us understand ourselves betterHelps us understand others
20Exercise OneWorking in peer groups for 60 minutes, use questioning and challenging skills to identify:1 time when you have experienced transference1 time when you have experienced counter transference3 times when you have experienced ego defence mechanisms (what ego defence mechanisms were they? What were the circumstances in which they occurred?)1 time you have experienced resistance