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Jill Dawson and Aubrey Garrison Colchester Middle School.

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1 Jill Dawson and Aubrey Garrison Colchester Middle School

2 Essential Questions How did woman’s quest for new roles and rights for her gender evolve from colonial times through the 20 th Century? How do media portrayals of women help us better understand evolving attitudes about women’s roles in society?

3 Enduring Understanding Media portrayals of women throughout the 20 th Century tell a tale of shifting attitudes about women’s roles in society and the extent to which women have achieved legal and social equality in the United States.

4 Key Ideas Throughout the 20 th Century, the role of women in society changed as the needs of the nation changed. Stereotypical images of women, from different eras, provide insight into the social norms of the times and challenges to those norms.

5 Key Ideas Key heroines from each era in the 20 th Century helped move the fight for women’s legal and social equality forward.

6 Key Ideas Media helps shape and influence the experiences, issues, social norms, legal rights, and attitudes of and about women in society.

7 Overview Before we get to the 20 th Century, you will be getting a brief overview of the women’s rights movement from colonial times until the end of the 19 th Century.

8 1776 Abigail Adams is often referred to as the first influential woman to advocate for the rights of women. She urged her husband, John Adams, to “remember the ladies” as he worked with the Continental Congress to write the Declaration of Independence and to help draft the new country’s laws.

9 1776 American colonies had based their laws on the English common law that stated: “By marriage, the husband and wife are one person in the law. The very being and legal existence of the woman is suspended during the marriage, or at least is incorporated into that of her husband under whose wing and protection she performs everything.”

10 Mill Girls: Early 1800s In the years following the American Revolution, young, single women who worked in New England textile mills helped to blaze a trail for women’s rights. The female mill workers of Lowell helped introduce to women the concept of unifying together as a group to take political action, after they famously went on strike in 1836.

11 July 19-20, 1848 Elizabeth Cady Stanton (top) and Lucretia Mott (bottom) were both active in the anti-slavery movement. They co-organized the first women’s rights convention in American history, which was held in Seneca Falls, New York. Today, Seneca Falls is considered the birthplace of the movement for women’s equality.

12 Declaration of Sentiments 1848 “We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness…”

13 Dress Reform: Early 1850s Amelia Bloomer popularized the bloomer costume. Attempts at clothing reform were met with hostility and attracted negative attention in the media. Bloomers fell out of fashion within three years.

14 Ain’t I a Woman? In 1851, SojournerTruth, a freed slave, dazzled a crowd with her extemporaneous speech, “Ain’t I Woman?” in which she brought attention to the plight of African American women.

15 Dynamic Duo Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton worked as a team on behalf of women’s suffrage ― the right to vote.

16 1858 Women’s Rights Convention Note: By 1858, women are back in their more formal, uncomfortable clothing.

17 Civil War (1861-1865) With the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, women’s efforts on behalf of equal rights for themselves came to a virtual standstill.

18 Civil War (1861-1865) Women were needed to fill many jobs during the war: –serving as nurses in their homes and in hospitals –providing medicine, bandages, and food –collecting and distributing food and clothing –raising money for supplies –working with hazardous chemicals in plants that made weapons –working in textile mills –spying

19 Thirteenth Amendment 1865 The 13 th Amendment officially ended slavery. It states: “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.”

20 Fourteenth Amendment 1868 The 14 th Amendment grants citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the United States and gives federal protection to individual rights. It states: “No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”

21 The Age of Brass (1869)

22 The Age of Iron (1869)

23 Fifteenth Amendment 1870 The 15 th Amendment grants all citizens the right to vote. It states: “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”

24 Susan B. Anthony 1872 In 1872, Susan B. Anthony was arrested after she challenged the 14 th Amendment by voting illegally.

25 What’s the Message of this Image?

26 Susan B. Anthony Dollar Susan B. Anthony is the first woman to be pictured on a U.S. coin in general circulation. Dollar coins minted in 1979 and 1980 display her profile. “Failure is impossible.” Susan B. Anthony

27 1892 “The consent of the governed woman is as necessary to a just government as is the consent of the governed man.” Lucy Stone November 8, 1892 Election Day

28 1895: The New Woman “I fear you think the New Woman is going to wipe you off the planet, but be not afraid. All who have mothers, sisters, wives, or sweethearts will be very well looked after.” Elizabeth Cady Stanton 1895

29 Compare and Contrast

30 Now that you have some background information, the rest of this presentation will explore images of women through each of the decades of the 20 th Century!

31 1900-1910 By the time the 20 th Century started in 1900, many women had been working toward equality for most of their lives. By 1900, every state had passed laws granting married women some control of their property and earnings, but they still could not vote or serve on juries!

32 The New Woman: Wash Day 1901

33 New Woman: Wash Day

34 Give Baby Her Bottle at 6 O’clock

35 I’m Going Shopping, Dear. Have Dinner Started When I Return.

36 “The Weaker Sex” 1903 Who is depicted as being the weaker sex in this image?

37 “Election Day” 1909 Is EQUALITY depicted here? Why not? What is the fear portrayed by this image?

38 Imprisoned Suffragette 1909 This image depicts force feeding of a prisoner who’d gone on a hunger strike in England. This strategy, the hunger strike, was later adopted by suffragists in America.

39 “The Time of Her Life” 1909 Why might the woman in the image be depicted as being so much larger than the men?

40 Man and Woman 1910 As they WERE. As they ARE. As they WILL BE.

41 On to the next decade! 1910-1920

42 This was a very dynamic decade! By 1913, the women’s suffrage movement had been steadily building its case, state by state, for a Constitutional amendment that granted women the right to vote! The U.S. entered World War in 1917, and women were once again asked to pitch in.

43 Two Strategies Carrie Chapman Catt wanted to take a state by state approach. Alice Paul (Right) was in favor of advocating for Constitutional amendment. Whose words are written on the banner?

44 “The March to Washington” 1913 This parade drew attention away from Woodrow Wilson’s inauguration. One group of women hiked 230 miles in 17 days to attend.

45 Note the Similarities? 18511913

46 “Liberty” 1913 Why is “Liberty” portrayed as a woman?

47 “The Greatest Mother in the World” World War I Poster (1915) (Listen to “The Rose of No-Man’s Land”) What is this large woman holding? What qualities might the “greatest mother in the world” possess? For what roles are women being recruited to fill, based upon this image?

48 “The Anti and the Snowball- Then and Now” 1916 What does the snowball represent?

49 First Woman Elected to House of Representatives (1916) Jeanette Rankin became the first female member of Congress in 1916, although she could not vote!

50 Women Picket the White House 1917 Under the leadership of Alice Paul, women picketed outside of the White House. After the protesting and picketing had gone on for several months, police began making arrests. Many women who were imprisoned endured harsh treatment, including Alice Paul.

51 Picketing Outside the White House: 1917

52 1917 This woman (Helena Hill Weed) was sent to prison for carrying a banner that read: “Governments Derive their Just Powers from the Consent of the Governed.”

53 1917 Lucy Burns spent more time in prison than any other suffragist. This photo was taken at Occoquan Workhouse, VA.

54 Gee!! I Wish I Were A Man! 1918 If she WERE a man, what would she be encouraged by this advertisement to do? Who IS the audience for this advertisement?

55 Alice Paul 1915 and 1920 Imprisoned for protesting Toasting the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment

56 Nineteenth Amendment 1920 The 19 th Amendment granted women the right to vote. It states: “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.”

57 “Congratulations” 1920 Who is congratulating the woman on the left?

58 “The Sky is Now Her Limit” 1920 What is the goal depicted at the top of the ladder?

59 On to the next decade! 1920-1930

60 The 1920s era was a time of wealth in the United States. After World War I ended and women gained the right to vote, women’s desire to have fun was reflected in the flapper image, the opposite of the studious, serious, often single women that had fought for suffrage. In 1920, when women went to the polls across the nation for the first time, they made up an estimated one-third of voters, but many women dropped out of the politics altogether in the late twenties. The Roaring Twenties ended with the start of the Great Depression

61 Flappers 1920s How do these two images compare? How did women’s fashion change once they’d earned the right to vote?

62 Equal Rights Amendment After the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920, Alice Paul devoted her energies toward achieving legal equality for women. She drafted the Equal Rights Amendment and submitted it to Congress in 1923. The complete text reads:

63 Alice Paul’s 1923 Equal Rights Amendment “Men and women shall have equal rights throughout the United States and in every place subject to its jurisdiction. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.” Do you agree with this statement? Why or why not?

64 On to the next decade! 1930-1940

65 The Great Depression lasted from 1929 until 1941. 1932- The National Recovery Act forbids more than one family member from holding a government job, resulting in many women losing their jobs. Women with experience as social reformers began to take on key roles.

66 The Great Depression 1930s Amelia Earhart A poor, migrant mother

67 Eleanor Roosevelt: 1939 Eleanor Roosevelt, pictured here with Marion Anderson, was a first lady and humanitarian who worked to help people who lacked power.

68 On to the next decade! 1940-1950

69 America was plunged into war in 1941, after Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. World War II ended the Great Depression as factories began producing for the war. Six million American women joined the labor force during the war. When the men came back, the women were asked to return to their homes.

70 Recruiting Women for World War II “The WAC who shares your army life will make a better post-war wife.”

71 Rosie the Riveter (1940s)

72 First Female Baseball Team 1943 Formed during World War II when almost half of the nation's major leaguers entered Military service, the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League was an instant success and drew 176,000 rapid fans during the first season.

73 Wonder Woman: 1947 What is the tone of this image? What does the box in the right- hand corner imply?

74 Wonder Woman: 1947

75 Wonder Woman Celebrates Carrie Chapman Catt Why might Carrie Chapman Catt have been considered a heroine in the 1940s?

76 Revised Equal Rights Amendment The wording to the Equal Rights amendments was revised slightly in 1944: The revised text reads:

77 Revised Equal Rights Amendment Section I: Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Section II: The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article. Section III: This amendment shall take effect two years after the date of ratification. Do you agree with this statement? Why or why not?

78 On to the next decade! 1950-1960

79 Between 1950 and 1960, women earned just over half of what men earned, approximately 65 cents to a man’s dollar. Events of the 1950s, such as the Montgomery Bus Boycott, set the stage for the civil rights movement.

80 Back into the Kitchen!

81 The Good Wife’s Guide

82 50s Celebrities What two stereotypes are depicted here?

83 Rosa Parks

84 On to the next decade! 1960-1970

85 By 1960, women’s earnings went down from 65 percent of what men earned to 60 percent. John F. Kennedy and his fashionable young wife brought hope to the nation. After his assassination, the nation changed dramatically; women took advantage of the revolutionary climate created by the civil rights movement to fight for their own civil rights. The Vietnam War, Civil Rights Movements, and antiwar demonstrations were in full swing.

86 (1960-1963)

87 The Mercury 13 1962 A group of women known as the Mercury 13 trained to become the first American female astronauts. Vice President Johnson was not in favor.

88 Equal Pay Act 1963 The Equal Pay Act was passed by Congress, promising equitable wages for the same work, regardless of the race, color, religion, national origin, or sex of the worker.

89 (1964-1969) Freedom Trash Can

90 Civil Rights Act 1964 The Civil Rights Act addressed many civil rights issues –Title VII of the Civil Rights Act includes a prohibition against employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, natural origin, or sex.

91 On to the next decade! 1970-1980

92 ● Despite the Equal Pay Act of 1963, women in 1970 were paid about 45 percent less than men for the same jobs. The United States Supreme Court found sexually discriminatory laws to be illegal for the first time in the early 1970s. Before that time, discrimination against women was not only legal but also considered reasonable by many people. 1971- The U.S. Supreme Court outlaws the practice of private employers refusing to hire women with pre-school children. 1972- Title IX of the Education Amendments prohibits sex discrimination in all aspects of education programs that receive federal support.

93 Bella Abzug 1970

94 National Women’s Political Caucus

95 1970s Where have you seen this image before?How does this Wonder Woman look compared to the 1940’s version?

96 Equal Rights Amendment After years of debate, the Equal Rights Amendment was passed by Congress in 1972 and then sent to the states for ratification. Congress required that the ERA be ratified within seven years. It failed to meet the March 22, 1979 deadline. Congress voted to extend it until June 30, 1982

97 On to the next decade! 1980-1990

98 In 1980, President Jimmy Carter issues a Presidential Proclamation declaring the week of March 8th as the first National Women’s History Week, which in 1987 becomes National Women’s History Month. Despite the Equal Pay Act of 1963, women in 1988 still earn about 32 percent less than men for doing the same jobs.

99 Justice at Last- 1981

100 By 1982, only 35 of the 38 states had ratified the amendment and it failed. Equal Rights Amendment

101 Shoulder Pads and Astronauts Sally Ride: First female astronaut in space Oprah wearing shoulder pads

102 First Vice Presidential Candidate 1984

103 On to the next decade! 1990-2000

104 Despite the Equal Pay Act of 1963, women in 2000 earned about 73 cents to a man's dollar.

105 1992: Year of the Woman “Tripling our representation in the Senate is no triumph when the female faces go from two to six.” “It will not be the year of the woman until we have half of the House and half of the Senate and a president once in a while.” Gloria Steinum

106 New Roles for Women Janet Reno became the first U.S. Attorney General in 1993. Madeline Albright became the first female U.S. Secretary of State. –Highest Woman Ever in U.S. Government

107 TODAY! 2009 1940s

108 Special Thanks to the Following Berg, Linda S. “Go Ahead, Arrest Me!” Cobblestone. March 2009: 11-12. Harvey, Sheridan, et. al. (Eds.). American Women: A Library of Congress Guide for the Study of Women’s History and Culture in the United States. Washington: Library of Congress, 2001. Kempler, Susan, and Doreen Rappaport (Producers). (1971). But the Women Rose, Vol.1: Voices of Women in American History (CD recording (2009)/MP3 recording). United States: Folkways Records / Smithsonian Folkways. Kitch, Carolyn. The Girl on the Magazine Cover: The Origins of Visual Stereotypes in American Mass Media. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2001. Rossi, Ann. Created Equal: Women Campaign for the Right to Vote, 1840- 1920. Crossroads America. Crossroads America Series. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic, 2005. Sugarman, Dorothy A. Women’s Suffrage: Building Fluency through Reader’s Theater. Huntington Beach, CA: Teacher Created Materials, 2009. Sullivan, George. The Day the Women Got the Vote: A Photo History of the Women’s Rights Movement. New York: Scholastic, 1994. “Women’s History Collections” American Memory Website at the Library of Congress. 20 Feb. 2010.'s%20History's%20History “Women’s Suffrage: Primary Source Set” Library of Congress. 20 Mar. 2010.

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