Presentation on theme: "The Campaign for Woman Suffrage,"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Campaign for Woman Suffrage, 1848-1919 Votes for WomenThe Campaign for Woman Suffrage,
2 Seneca Falls Convention, 1848 Women’s suffrage movement in U.S. dates from 1848 Women’s Rights Convention held at Seneca Falls, New YorkSuffrage movement had its roots in the 19th century reform movements for abolition, temperance, and women’s rightsConference called by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott300 women and men, including Frederick Douglass, attended the convention
3 Declaration of Sentiments At the Seneca Falls Convention, Cady Stanton issued the Declaration of Sentiments, which called for:Legal equality for womenRights to property and wagesAccess to educationRight to Vote
4 Conflict in the Suffrage Movement Most advocates of Woman Suffrage had been abolitionists, but debate over ratification of 14th and 15th Amendments created divisions14th Amendment (1868)placed word “male” in constitution for the first timeequated the rights of citizenship with being male15th Amendment (1870)“The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied…on account of race, color or previous condition of servitude.”
5 American Woman Suffrage Association Founded in 1868Led by Lucy Stone and Henry BlackwellAccepted men as members and leadersbased in New Englandsupported 14th and 15th amendmentswanted states to enfranchise womenAdvocated a “grass roots” approach to suffrageaccepted partial suffrageWomen’s Journal
6 National Woman Suffrage Association Founded in 1869Led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthonyall female leadershipNew York basedOpposed 15th AmendmentWanted a 16th Amendment providing for woman suffrageWanted federal government, not state governments to guarantee woman suffrageOpposed partial suffrageTop-down strategy—Direct actionPetition CongressChallenge laws in the courtsRevolution
8 Victories in the Western States In 1869, Wyoming became the first U.S. territory to allow women to voteenfranchised women in1890 state constitutionUtah enfranchised women in 1870 to outvote non-Mormon settlersBy 1896, women could vote in Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Idaho
9 National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) Schism in movement healed in 1890 when NWSA and AWSA merged into NAWSANAWSA led first by Cady Stanton (until 1892) and then by Anthony (until 1900).Despite the merger, the suffrage movement stalled around the turn of the centuryStill a minority movement
10 “Antis”Associations opposed to woman suffrage began to appear in the 1890s“Antis” saw woman suffrage as an attack on traditional sex roles and social organizationAntis made two contradictory arguments against woman suffrageAsserted that women were virtually represented by their male family membersTherefore, they didn’t need the voteBut also argued that women, if given the vote, would vote against husbandsThis would destroy homes and families, and bring social chaos
12 New Leaders and Tactics Under Carrie Chapman Catt (pres , ) and Anna Howard Shaw (pres ), NAWSA had woman suffrage referenda passed in California in 1910 and three more states in 1912By 1914, Oregon, Arizona, Kansas, Nevada, and Montana all had granted women the vote
14 March on Washington, 1913Day before Woodrow Wilson’s inauguration NAWSA held a parade down Pennsylvania Ave to raise support for a woman suffrage amendment.The 5,000 marchers were attacked during as police refused to protect them
17 National Women’s Party Failure to get a federal amendment caused another split in the movementAlice Paul led a radical faction out of the NAWSA in 1913founded the Congressional Union to agitate for the federal amendment.In 1916, Congressional Union became the the National Women’s Party
18 Alice PaulInfluenced by the British suffragettes such as Emmeline Pankhurst, Paul turned to more radical methods to agitate for a woman suffrage amendment.
21 Winning Plan NAWSA opposed to Paul’s tactics Saw demonstrations and protests as damaging to the movementCatt developed the Winning Plan, which called for the NAWSA to continue to organize state by state and also work for a federal amendmentIn 1917, President Wilson urged Congress to pass a woman suffrage amendmentThe “Anthony Amendment” passed the House in 1918, the Senate in 1919, and was ratified by the 36th state, Tennessee, in August 1920.