3 More Additions to the Constitution Since the passage of the Bill of Rights in 1791, 17 other amendments have been added to the U.S. ConstitutionNew amendments were passed as new circumstances and changing beliefs in the country required changes in the governmentToday the Constitution has 27 amendmentsSome of these amendments expanded the rights of U.S. citizens
4 Rights of U.S. CitizensCivil Rights = the rights guaranteed to all U.S. citizens.The U.S. Constitution, particularly the Bill of Rights, is the foundation for civil rights in America.Before the Civil War, protection of civil rights was left to the individual states.
5 Civil War Amendments 13th Amendment – 1865 14th Amendment – 1868 Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments were added after thewar to protect the rights of newly freed African Americans.13th Amendment – 1865outlawed slavery in the United States and in all lands governed by the U.S.forced labor can only be used as a punishment for crimefinished job of the Emancipation Proclamationhad only ended slavery in the Confederate states during the Civil War14th Amendment – 1868grants full citizenship to African Americansintended mainly to protect the rights of African Americanscontains rights that are important for all Americansprotects citizens against unfair actions by state governmentslike the 5th Amendment that forbids unfair federal actionsno state can take away a citizen's "life, liberty, or property,without due process of law"no state can deny citizens equal protection of the law
6 Extending Voting Rights Suffrage = The right to vote.six amendments deal with voting rights15th, 17th, 19th, 23rd, 24th, 26thoriginal Constitution made no mention of voting rightsbefore Civil War the states decided who could votewhite menover the age of 21own a certain amount of property (gradually eliminated)have certain religious beliefs (removed after the American Revolution)From 1800s to 1971, several amendments to the Constitution extended suffrage (voting rights) to more U.S. citizens
7 Fifteenth AmendmentAfrican American men were guaranteed the right to voteno person can be denied the right to vote because of race or colorlate 1800s and early 1900s many states, particularly in the South, passed laws that kept African Americans from votingliteracy tests, poll taxesin the 1960s Congress passed civil rights laws that finally established equal voting rights for African AmericansCivil Rights Act of 1964, Voting Rights Act of 1965
8 Seventeenth Amendment - 1913 direct election of U.S. senators to Congressa state's eligible voters now elect the state's U.S. senatorsaccording to the Constitution, U.S. senators were originally chosen by members of the state legislatures who had been elected by state voters (indirect election)
9 Nineteenth Amendment - 1920 women gained the right to votevoting cannot be denied because of sexwomen's suffrage movementlong struggle for the right to vote for womenwomen should not be treated as second-class citizenssuffragists/suffragettes - fought for women's right to vote Susan B. Anthony, Carrie Chapman Catt,Lucretia Mott, and Elizabeth Cady StantonWyoming became first U.S. state to give women the right to vote 18909
11 Twenty-Third Amendment - 1961 gave citizens living in the District of Columbia (Washington, D.C.) the right to vote for president and vice presidentcreated 3 electoral votes for D.C. so that it could participate in the Electoral College system along with the fifty statesaccording to the Constitution, the Electoral College is responsible for electing the president and vice presidentbefore this amendment, residents of the District of Columbia had not been able vote in national elections since the late 1700s11
12 Voting is a free freedom! Twenty-Fourth Amendmentoutlaws the use of a poll tax as a qualification for voting in national electionsSupreme Court ruled that poll taxes are also unlawful in state electionsPoll Tax = A special tax thathad to be paid in order to vote.Some of the American colonies had imposed poll taxes.Beginning in the late 1800s some states required all people to pay a special tax before they could vote.These poll taxes were eliminated after the American Revolution only to be reintroduced during the period following the Civil War.Many Americans believed this tax was intended to discourage African Americans from voting.Voting is a free freedom!12
13 Twenty-Sixth Amendment - 1971 lowered the voting age in national, state, and local elections to 18previously, most states had set the age at 21 for the first voteSupporters of the amendment pointed out that 18-year-olds were already considered responsible enough to be drafted to fight for their country – Vietnam Warold enough to defend democracy is old enough to participate in democratic elections1813
14 VOTING RIGHTS FOR AMERICANS AMENDMENTYEAR RATIFIEDGROUP BENEFITTED15TH1870Black Men17TH1913All Voters19TH1920Women23RD1961D.C. Residents24TH196626TH1971year-olds
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