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SOC 312: American Society Social Psychology. Dominant Social Psychology Approaches behavioral –rises and falls in sociology –dominant in micro economics.

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Presentation on theme: "SOC 312: American Society Social Psychology. Dominant Social Psychology Approaches behavioral –rises and falls in sociology –dominant in micro economics."— Presentation transcript:

1 SOC 312: American Society Social Psychology

2 Dominant Social Psychology Approaches behavioral –rises and falls in sociology –dominant in micro economics –major field of psychology interactional –Goffman –major sociological approach today phenomenological: always been marginal

3 Freud represents a tradition important in psychology: cognitive psychology –never been dominant in social psychology or as sociological theory –but major challenge to social psychology and major field within psychology –Freudian is only one of many cognitive theories but is best known and most influential outside of psychology

4 Freud (1856-1939) dialectical model of human mind –id: animal instincts and drives—eros, thantos, and libido; these drive individual to self- destructive hedonism –super ego: culture, collective conscience, beliefs and values—civilization –these contradictory elements are synthesized in ego

5 Freud's Dialectical Model super ego id ego

6 Freud's Model of Personality various instincts: eros, thantos, libido are controlled through sublimation, repression, transference as child moves through stages –oral –anal –phallic

7 Freud (continued) Oral stage: kids put everything in their mouths –unsuccessful attempts to control this desire can lead to obesity, anorexia, smoking, etc. –these are all oral fixations Anal stage: kids urinate and defecate whenever and wherever –problems in toilet training yield slob or neatness freak

8 Freud (continued) phallic stage: kids seek sexual gratification –unsuccessful attempts to control this behavior leads to various neuroses –frigidity, impotence, permiscuousness, rape, and various types of phobias (unreasonable fears) and fetishes (abnormal obsessions, e.g. foot fetish)

9 Civilization and its Discontents Freud develops his conservative philosophy –"Human life is only possible [through the ] replacement of [the] liberty of the individual [by] the development of civilization." (p. 49) –criticizes Marxists of his day (1890-1930), "the communists (p. 70) [and their illusions about human nature and] aggressiveness" (p. 71) –he concludes, "the fateful question" (p. 111)

10 Behaviorism: History John B. Watson (1878-1958) –Animal Behavior (1903) –Behaviorism (1925) –was foil for George Herbert Mead (1863- 1933), Father of Symbolic Interactionism George Casper Homans (sociologist) –Human Group (1950) –Social Behavior (1961)

11 Homans' Exchange Theory Homans versus Parsons at Harvard –golden age of American sociology (1945- 1973) –nationalism and conservativism –functionalism was sociology –pluralism was political science –Homans challenged functionalism with behaviorism (in 1950s)

12 Blau's Exchange Theory Peter Blau (of Blau and Duncan fame) resurrected Exchange Theory –Exchange and Power in Social Life (1964) –part of general critique of Parsons and functionalism –also part of self-help popular psychology that was challenging Freudianism instead of psychotherapy buy a book

13 Self-help Pop Psych Books B.F. Skinner, Walden II Wm. Glasser, Reality Therapy Abraham Maslow, Self Actualized Man Eric Fromme, The Art of Loving (actually a Marxist, but this book was very popular in Sixties and early Seventies)

14 Behaviorism (history) remained viable alternative to psycho- therapy never firmly established in sociology Blau gave up on Exchange Theory and became functionalist and Weberian organization theorist James Coleman resurrected theory as Rational Choice

15 Behaviorism (history) Coleman –Asymetric Society (1982) –Rational Choice Theory (1992) Since then –Roger Finke and Rodney Stark, The Churching of America (1992) –Ken Ferraro, Fear of Crime (1995) –Wm Brustein, The Logic of Evil (1996) –Scott Feld works in this tradition as well

16 What is Behaviorism? Rooted in behavior modification –operant behavior is random (observed) –desired behavior can be induced through reinforcement: reproducing (rewarding) behavior that approximates desired punishment: extinguishing behavior that deviates from desired In laboratory setting, two options –positive: impose condition –negative: remove condition

17 Behavior Modification reinforcepunish positiveimpose pleasure impose pain negativeremove pain remove pleasure

18 Applying Reinforcement and Punishment Behavior Modification in Three Stages Stage 1Stage 2Success punish reinforcepunish reinforcepunish reinforce - + - + -+ OperantDesiredBehavior

19 Social Exchange Theory relations are instrumental or value rational “other” is source of reinforcement or punishment selfother + +/-

20 Social Exchange Theory (cont.) power, values and social structure (Blau 1986 [1964) –dependence and obligation (pp. 118-125) –status as capital (pp. 132-133) –legitimacy (p. 30) –authority and social structure (p. 211)

21 Blau (1986 [1964], p.124) 1. Supply inducements Strategic resources Indifference to what others offer Exchange and distribution of resources 2. Obtain elsewhere Available alternatives Monopoly over what others need Competition and exchange rates 3. Take by force Coercive forces Law & orderOrganization & differentiation 4. Do withoutIdeals lessening needs Materialistic and other relevant values Ideology formation Alternatives to Compliance Conditions of Independence Requirements of Power Structural Implications

22 Rational Choice and all That Continuing interest in Soc of Religion: religious market place: Finke & Stark Continuing interest in CJ/deviance –Social learning –Deterrence –Opportunity structures –prisoner’s dilemma

23 Prisoner's Dilemma A: 1 year B: 1 year A: 5 years B: 1 year A: 1 year B: 5 years A: 6 months B: 6 months Prisoner A Prisoner B plea no plea

24 Three Micro Approaches Battle of nature and nurture –Tempest of unreason –Animal instincts –Cultural beliefs and values Global Marketplace –Profitmaking exchanges –Competition –Resource dependency A Stage –Actors –Audiences –Performances

25 Symbolic Interactionism Foundation of Goffman’s dramaturgical analysis Rooted in –Pragmatism: we can change the world –Symbolic interactionism Socialization is continuous process Society is negotiated order

26 George Herbert Mead Father of symbolic interactionism –Lecturer in philosophy at Chicago, 1894-1931 –Taught social psychology course –Lecture notes published posthumously as Mind Self and Society (the bible of SI) society mindself

27 Mead’s Model of Emergent Self other me I negotiationself

28 Society: Negotiated Order Process oriented Indeterminate dynamic other self negotiation role performance negotiation

29 Strains of S.I. Mead: Mind, Self, and Society Blumer: joint action Goffman: dramaturgical and frame Structural –Kuhn –Stryker Tim Owens Viktor Gecas

30 Goffman we can analyze form and content of social life as a dramatic perfomance (p. xi) –essence of dramaturgical approach –clearly within interactionist tradition definition of situation (p. 1) –expression gives and gives off (p. 2) –presentation of self affects definition of situation

31 Goffman definition of situation has moral character—includes rights (p. 13) Goffman's definitions of terms –defensive and protective practices (pp. 13-14) –interaction (p. 15) –performance (p. 15) –social relations and social roles (p. 16)

32 Goffman performances –sincere/cynical (p.18) –front (p. 22) –setting –appearance (p. 24) –manner –coherence of setting, appearance, and manner (p. 25)

33 performance (cont.) audience segregation (p. 49) maintainance of expressive control (p. 51) misrepresentation (p. 58) mystification (p. 67) reality and contrivance (p. 70) –statistical relation between appeance and reality (p. 71)

34 Goffman Teams (chapter 2) –defined (p. 79) –function (p. 104) Regions (chapter 3) –defined (p. 106) –front (p. 107) –back (p 112) –back/front workers (p. 124)

35 regions (cont.) function of regions (pp. 127-8) limitations on back stage informality (pp. 129-30) outside and outsiders (p. 135) front region control and audience segregation (p. 137) negotiating situation and identity— embarrassment (pp. 139-40)

36 Goffman discrepant roles (chapter 4) –function/problem for team: information control and secrets (p. 141) –information, region, and function (pp. 144-5) –examples informer (p. 145) shil(p. 146) spotter (p. 149) shopper (p. 149)

37 More discrepant roles go between (p. 149) nonperson (p. 151) service specialist (p. 153) confidant (p. 159) colleague (p. 160)

38 Goffman Communication out of character (chptr 5) –in character: normal appearance (p. 167) –out of character trashing the absent (p. 170) staging (p. 175) team collusion (p. 176) realigning action (p. 190) –types (p. 195) concluding remarks (pp. 206-7) –needs and social construction of reality

39 Goffman Art of Impression Management (chptr 6) –defensive/protective measures (p. 212) defense –loyalty (p. 212) –discipline (p. 216) –circumspection (p. 218) protective –tact (p. 229) –tact regarding tact (pp. 233-4) summary (p. 237)

40 Goffman Conclusion (chptr 7) –dramaturgy and social establishment –personality-interaction-society (plus definition of situation) –comparisons and cultural differences –impressions, expressions, moral and practical concerns –the staging of self

41 Goffman Ultimately, "self is a product" (pp. 252-3) socially constructed critical issue in "structure of social encounters... is the maintenance of a single definition of the situation" (p. 254)

42 Toward a Big Picture Fifty years of sociology –Theory –Politics –Economics –Social Interaction Can these pieces come together in some way?

43 Obviously: Theories of Political Economy Bad old theories –Adam Smith –Evolutionary theories of development –Functional theories of development The Good Stuff –World System Theory/Dependency theory –Theories of bourgeois/peasant revolution

44 Can Social Psychology Add Something? Maybe something interesting? Race, class, gender –Self in a world of racial segregation: Do white people really know any other people? Do white people have a racialized self? –Men in a gendered world Are men aware of their gender? Are all women divided into kin and other categories? Do men with sisters do gender differently?

45 Politics of Policing Consider a world where Normal interactions involve –Officer Self is white male police officer Other is black male criminal –Suspect Self is black male citizen Other is white male cop

46 Police Encounters with Suspects How do young black men react when they see white police officers –Defensive posture –Fight/flight readiness How do police determine who should be stopped and questioned –Who looks out of place –Who looks like a criminal

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