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I. Politics & Sectionalism A. The Missouri Compromise (1820) 1. Maine admitted as a free state 2. Missouri admitted as a SLAVE state 3. Limited the spread.

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Presentation on theme: "I. Politics & Sectionalism A. The Missouri Compromise (1820) 1. Maine admitted as a free state 2. Missouri admitted as a SLAVE state 3. Limited the spread."— Presentation transcript:


2 I. Politics & Sectionalism A. The Missouri Compromise (1820) 1. Maine admitted as a free state 2. Missouri admitted as a SLAVE state 3. Limited the spread of slavery 4. Balance of free & slave states was important

3 Missouri Compromise, 1820

4 B. Nullification Crisis (1832) 1. South opposes a high tariff designed to boost Northern industry 2. SC wants to nullify the federal law and threatens to secede 3. VP John C. Calhoun of SC resigned 4. Jackson threatened to send in army – SC backed down

5 II. Sectionalism A. North 1. Industrial Revolution – begins in Britain a. textile factories use southern cotton b. 1789 – technology reaches the U. S. 2. New England – center of U. S. textile industry a. fast moving streams (power) b. established shipping industry c. large labor force

6 The Lowell Textile Plant Francis Cabot Lowell’s town - 1814

7 Early Textile Loom

8 New England Textile Centers: 1830s

9 New England Dominance in Textiles

10 3. Mid-Atlantic Area – especially PA a. coal and iron ore b. building of machines 4. Favor high tariffs to protect their manufactured goods

11 5. New Technology a. Telegraph, Yankee Clipper Ships, Steam powered machines and engines Samuel F. B. Morse 1840 – Telegraph


13 Yankee Clipper Ships

14 Robert Fulton & the Steamboat The Clermont

15 Oliver Evans First prototype of the locomotive First automated flour mill

16 The “Iron Horse” Wins! (1830) 1830  13 miles of track built by Baltimore & Ohio RR By 1850  9000 mi. of RR track [1860  31,000 mi.]

17 The Railroad Revolution, 1850s Immigrant labor built the No. RRs. Slave labor built the So. RRs.

18 John Deere & the Steel Plow (1837)

19 Cyrus McCormick & the Mechanical Reaper: 1831

20 Elias Howe & Isaac Singer 1840s Sewing Machine

21 Irish Immigrant Girls at Lowell

22 6. Working Conditions a. Dirty, dangerous, long hours, low pay, no benefits b. Emergence of labor unions 1. Not much effect – opposition from employers and government 7. New Immigrants a. From Ireland and Germany: left because of hardships, poverty 1. Work for lower wages, hated for it by Nativists

23 National Origin of Immigrants: 1820 - 1860

24 American Population Centers in 1820

25 American Population Centers in 1860

26 B. The West (Appalachians to Mississippi) 1. Settled after the War of 1812 2. Small farms, some industry along rivers 3. Favor high tariffs so cities will grow & increase need for farm goods

27 C. The South 1. Agrarian Society (based on agriculture) 2. King Cotton a. becomes profitable after the invention of the cotton gin (1797 – Eli Whitney) b. large labor force needed to work cotton fields c. slave labor is thought to be necessary 3. Industry does not develop 4. Favor low tariffs – many imported goods used

28 Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin, 1791

29 Slaves Using the Cotton Gin

30 Changes in Cotton Production 1820 1860

31 III. Slavery A. First slaves arrived in America in 1619 B. Slavery almost died out – but the cotton gin increased the demand for slaves C. Slave Rebellions – most failed miserably 1. Nat Turner (1831) a. ‘good’ slave from Virginia b. led a revolt & killed 60 whites 2. Slave codes enacted to prevent rebellion

32 8% 50% Whites who own no slaves 2% Free Africa Americans 32% Enslaved African Americans Whites with 5 or more slaves Whites with fewer than 5 slaves Southern Society in 1860

33 Slave-Owning Population (1850)

34 Southern Population

35 Slave Rebellions Throughout the Americas

36 Slave Rebellions in the Antebellum South 1822 Gabriel Prosser 1800

37 Slave Rebellions in the Antebellum South: Nat Turner, 1831

38 Southern Agriculture

39 Slaves Picking Cotton on a Mississippi Plantation

40 Value of Cotton Exports As % of All US Exports

41 “Hauling the Whole Week’s Pickings” William Henry Brown, 1842

42 Slaves Working in a Sugar-Boiling House, 1823

43 Slave Fortresses on the Coast of Africa

44 Portuguese Slave Ship

45 Slave Auction Notice, 1823

46 Slave Auction: Charleston, SC-1856

47 The Ledger of John White J Matilda Selby, 9, $400.00 sold to Mr. Covington, St. Louis, $425.00 J Brooks Selby, 19, $750.00 Left at Home – Crazy J Fred McAfee, 22, $800.00 Sold to Pepidal, Donaldsonville, $1200.00 J Howard Barnett, 25, $750.00 Ranaway. Sold out of jail, $540.00 J Harriett Barnett, 17, $550.00 Sold to Davenport and Jones, Lafourche, $900.00

48 Slave Master Brands Slave Accoutrements Slave muzzle

49 Slave tag, SC Slave Accoutrements Slave leg irons Slave shoes

50 Anti-Slave Pamphlet

51 Slaves posing in front of their cabin on a Southern plantation.

52 A Georgia Plantation

53 A Slave Family

54 The Culture of Slavery 1.Black Christianity [Baptists or Methodists]: * more emotional worship services. * negro spirituals. 2.“Pidgin” or Gullah languages. 3.Nuclear family with extended kin links, where possible. 4.Importance of music in their lives. [esp. spirituals].

55 Southern Pro-Slavery Propaganda

56 Early Emancipation in the North D. Abolitionists – people who wanted to free the slaves

57 The Tree of Slavery—Loaded with the Sum of All Villainies!

58 1. Frederick Douglass (1817-1895) 1845  The Narrative of the Life Of Frederick Douglass 1847  “The North Star” a. Self-educated former slave, traveled around the world speaking out against slavery

59 R2-10 a. Freed slave, illiterate, traveled across the country speaking for the rights of women & blacks 2. Sojourner Truth (1787 – 1883)

60 3. William Lloyd Garrison (1801-1879) R2-4 a. White man, publisher of The Liberator – an anti-slavery newspaper

61 4. Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811 – 1896) So this is the lady who started the Civil War. -- Abraham Lincoln So this is the lady who started the Civil War. -- Abraham Lincoln a. White woman, author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin

62 Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852)  Sold 300,000 copies in the first year.  2 million in a decade!  Sold 300,000 copies in the first year.  2 million in a decade! 1. examined the lives of slaves 2. made Northerners aware of how cruel slavery was

63 E. The Underground Railroad

64 The Underground Railroad “Conductor” ==== leader of the escape “Passengers” ==== escaping slaves “Tracks” ==== routes “Trains” ==== farm wagons transporting the escaping slaves “Depots” ==== safe houses to rest/sleep 1. network of abolitionists who helped slaves escape

65 Follow the Drinking Gourd When the Sun comes back, And the first quail calls, Follow the Drinking Gourd. For the old man is awaiting for to carry you to freedom The riverbank makes a very good road. The dead trees will show you the way. Left foot, peg foot, traveling on, Follow the Drinking Gourd. The river ends between two hills, Follow the Drinking Gourd. There’s another river on the other side, Follow the Drinking Gourd. When the great big river meets the little river, Follow the Drinking Gourd. For the old man is awaiting for to carry you to freedom, If you Follow the Drinking Gourd.

66 Quilt Patterns as Secret Messages NamePatternMeaning Monkey WrenchGather tools needed for a long journey Wagon Wheel Load or prepare to board the wagon to begin the escape. Crossroad Block Cleveland, Ohio, an area offering several routes to freedom, so one must be willing to go on.

67 NamePatternMeaning Carpenter BlockJesus would guide them. Bear Paw Take a mountain trail, and follow the path made by bear tracks to lead them to water and food. Basket Bring enough food and supplies to get to the crossroads. Bow Tie Block Dress in disguise, or change clothes.

68 NamePatternMeaning Log CabinPerson and home are safe to talk to and seek shelter. Shoo-fly Block Identifies a friendly guide who can help. Flying GeeseFollow the direction of the points. Birds in the AirFollow the birds in the air.

69 NamePatternMeaning Drunkard’s Path Travel in a zigzag pattern to avoid pursuers. Sailboat Block Take the sailboat across the Great Lakes. North StarFollow the north star.

70 2. Harriet Tubman (1820-1913) Helped over 300 slaves to freedom. $40,000 bounty on her head. Served as a Union spy during the Civil War. “Moses” a. Escaped slave who led others to freedom

71 Leading Escaping Slaves Along the Underground Railroad

72 Runaway Slave Ads

73 V. Compromise of 1850 A. California wants to become a state 1. Gold discovered at Sutter’s Mill in 1848 2. 95,000 ‘forty-niners’ rushed to California 3. government needed to be put in place quickly John A. Sutter

74 California Gold Rush, 1849 49er’s

75 B. Issue of slavery rises again C. Stephen A. Douglas (senator from IL) works out a compromise 1. California admitted as a free state 2. Slave trade ended in Washington, D. C. 3. Stronger Fugitive Slave Law put into effect 4. Slavery possible in the new territories of the southwest

76 Compromise of 1850

77 VI. Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) A. Stephen A. Douglas – comes up with the idea of Popular Sovereignty 1. Allows the settlers to decide whether or not to allow slavery B. Violence follows 1. John Brown (radical, white, abolitionist) kills settlers 2. “Bleeding Kansas” – a small civil war between slaveholders and radical abolitionists

78 Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854

79 “Bleeding Kansas” Border “Ruffians” (pro-slavery Missourians)

80 John Brown: Madman, Hero or Martyr? John Brown: Madman, Hero or Martyr? Mural in the Kansas Capitol building by John Steuart Curry (20 c )

81 VII. Brooks-Sumner fight (1856) A. Preston Brooks (representative from SC) B. Charles Sumner (senator from MA) 1. abolitionist 2. made fun of Brooks’ uncle C. Brooks attacked Sumner & almost killed him D. Sumner returned to the Senate THREE years later

82 VIII. Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) A. Supreme Court case B. Dred Scott – slave who sued for his freedom because he once lived in a free state C. Roger B. Taney, Chief Justice, ruled Scott was NOT free 1. Blacks were not citizens & had no right to sue 2. Government could not deprive a citizen of property without “due process” 3. any attempt to limit slavery was unconstitutional

83 IX. Harpers Ferry (1859) A. site of a federal arsenal in VA B. John Brown attacked – he wants to: 1. Obtain weapons to give to slaves 2. Start and lead a slave rebellion in Virginia first and then spread south C. Brown was captured by Robert E. Lee 1. Put on trial & found guilty of treason – hanged D. Southerners felt that their way of life was in danger


85 John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry, 1859

86 X. Election of 1860 A. Candidates 1. Abraham Lincoln – IL (Republican) did not want slavery to spread to the territories, NOT an abolitionist (yet) 2. Stephen A. Douglas – IL (Northern Democrat) thought people of territories should decide about slavery 3. John C. Breckinridge – KY (Southern Democrat) 4. John Bell – TN (Constitutional Union)

87 1860 Presidential Election Abraham Lincoln Republican John Bell Constitutional Union Stephen A. Douglas Northern Democrat John C. Breckinridge Southern Democrat

88 1860 Election: 3 “Outs” & 1 ”Run!”

89 1860 Election: A Nation Coming Apart

90 1860 Election Results 1860 Election Results

91 B. Results 1. Lincoln elected in November 1860 2. Southern states, led by SC, begin to secede from the Union 3. By Inauguration Day (March 4, 1861) seven states had seceded – SC, AL, FL, GA, LA, MS, TX

92 Secession!: SC  Dec. 20, 1860

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