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Chapter 16: The South and Slavery. King Cotton 1820.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16: The South and Slavery. King Cotton 1820."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 16: The South and Slavery

2 King Cotton

3 1820

4 1860

5 1820 1860

6 King Cotton

7 Slavery and the Economy 1. Slavery produced 95% of exports from Amer. to GB 2. Increase in population = increase demand for goods 3. Profits allowed for growth of other industries i.e. banks, ins. co., shipping 4. raw cotton = Industrial Revolution (IR) 5. Impact Cotton gin? 6. Diversified southern economy? 1793


9 Economically & Ethnically Speaking?

10 Characteristics of the Antebellum South 1.Primarily agrarian. 2.Economic power shifted from the “upper South” to the “lower South.” 3.“Cotton Is King!” * 1860  5 mil. bales a yr. (57% of total US exports). 4.Very slow development of industrialization. 5.Rudimentary financial system. 6.Inadequate transportation system.

11 Slaveholders 1850 What’s life like for 64% of the southern population? Contrast that with the 2.5% Those in-between the two? For crackers” and “clay eaters?” So why defend slavery? Who were the “mountain whites?”

12 Tara – Plantation Reality or Myth? Hollywood’s Version?

13 A Real Georgia Plantation

14 Slaves posing in front of their cabin on a Southern plantation.

15 A Slave Family

16 The Ledger of John White J Matilda Selby, 9, $400.00 sold to Mr. Covington, St. Louis, $425.00 J Brooks Selby, 19, $750.00 Left at Home – Crazy J Fred McAfee, 22, $800.00 Sold to Pepidal, Donaldsonville, $1200.00 J Howard Barnett, 25, $750.00 Ranaway. Sold out of jail, $540.00 J Harriett Barnett, 17, $550.00 Sold to Davenport and Jones, Lafourche, $900.00

17 Population Patterns in the South, 1850 In six southern states, slaves comprised over 40 percent of the total population.

18 Free Blacks: Slaves Without Masters South  250,000 by 1860  Emancipation  Emancipated “mulattoes”  Bought freedom  Some slave owners  Prohibited from certain occupations  Not allowed to testify against whites in court North  Not allowed in some states  No suffrage  No public school  Hated by Irish; jobs  Against expansion of slavery due to racism, not morality issue  Strong antiblack sentiment

19 Early Emancipation in the North

20 Southern Agriculture

21 Slaves Picking Cotton on a Mississippi Plantation


23 Slave Auction: Charleston, SC-1856

24 Slave Master Brands Slave Accoutrements Slave muzzle

25 Anti-Slave Pamphlet

26 Slave tag, SC Slave Accoutrements Slave leg irons Slave shoes

27 Distribution of Slave Labor in 1850

28 Slave Auction Notice, 1823


30 Bellegrove Plantation, Donaldsville, La.

31 Oak Alley Plantation, La.

32 Slave Quarters


34 Slave Resistance 2.Refusal to work hard. 3.Isolated acts of sabotage. 4.Escape via the Underground Railroad.

35 Runaway Slave Ads

36 Quilt Patterns as Secret Messages The Monkey Wrench pattern, on the left, alerted escapees to gather up tools and prepare to flee; the Drunkard Path design, on the right, warned escapees not to follow a straight route.

37 Slave Rebellions Throughout the Americas

38 Slave Rebellions in the Antebellum South South Carolina 1822 Gabriel Prosser Virginia 1800

39 Slave Rebellions in the Antebellum South: Nat Turner, Va. 1831

40 The Culture of Slavery 1.Black Christianity [Baptists or Methodists]: * more emotional worship services. * negro spirituals. 2.“Pidgin” or Gullah languages. 3.Nuclear family with extended kin links, where possible. 4.Importance of music in their lives. [esp. spirituals].

41 American Colonization Society, 1817 1. Wanted gradual emancipation 2. Quakers and Upper south slave owners 3. Shipped off to Liberia 4. Supported by Lincoln 5. Failed miserably

42 Southern Slavery--> An Aberration? J 1780s: 1 st antislavery society created in Phila. J By 1804: slavery eliminated from last northern state. J 1807: the legal termination of the slave trade, enforced by the Royal Navy. J 1820s: newly indep. Republics of Central & So. America declared their slaves free. J 1833: slavery abolished throughout the British Empire. J 1844: slavery abolished in the Fr. colonies. J 1861: the serfs of Russia were emancipated.

43 Abolitionists 1. Fredrick Douglass a. Political rights b. Use constitution 2. William Lloyd Garrison a. Liberator b. Nonviolence and passive resistence

44 Anti-Slavery Society 1833 Wendell Phillips

45 David Walker 1829 Sojourner Truth

46 Slavery Was Less Efficient in the U. S. than Elsewhere  High cost of keeping slaves from escaping.  GOAL  raise the “exit cost.”  Slave patrols.  Southern Black Codes.  Cut off a toe or a foot.

47 Southern Pro-slavery Propaganda


49 “Gag Rule” 1836

50 The South and Abolitionist material?

51 The North and Abolitionist material? “Broadcloth Mob”

52 Defense of Slavery  No debates on subject of slavery  No alternative labor systems  Decreased cooperation in national politics= no compromising by the south!

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