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Ch.11.2 Today’s learning target: Explain the effect of the cotton gin on slavery in the south Describe the life of African Americans in the mid 1800s.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch.11.2 Today’s learning target: Explain the effect of the cotton gin on slavery in the south Describe the life of African Americans in the mid 1800s."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Ch.11.2 Today’s learning target: Explain the effect of the cotton gin on slavery in the south Describe the life of African Americans in the mid 1800s south

4 Read, “One American’s Story” p. 373 Now, read The Cotton Boom... and think about: What might be the effects of the improved efficiency?

5 Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin, 1791 A slave actually helped invent!

6 CAUSE Industrial Revolution increases the number of goods produced at lower costs which increases consumer demand Mills need more raw materials such as cotton to meet consumer demand Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin (engine) in 1793 Growing & processing cotton becomes more profitable From 1790 to 1860, cotton production increases more than a thousandfold Slave labor becomes more necessary to increase profits CAUSE/EFFECT

7 Changes in Cotton Production

8 Southern Agriculture by 1860

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10 “King Cotton” & Value of Cotton Exports As % of All US Exports

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12 Southern Population

13 CAUSE Harsh, cruel, inhumane conditions oppress African Americans Some African Americans, such as Frederick Douglass, escape to the North Some African Americans, such as Nat Turner, rebel violently EFFECTS

14 What is the correlation or relationship between the 2 graphs? 3,750, % (4 times) A direct relation (correlation) between the number of slaves and cotton production. As one goes up, so does the other. Are these variables independent? About how many more slaves were there in 1860 compared to 1790? Explain the cause & effects of increased demand for cotton: What is the approximate percentage increase in cotton Production from 1800 to 1860? NO! Use the graphs & info from 11.2 to answer the questions:

15 Slave-Owning Population (1850)

16 Slave-Owning Families (1850)

17 A B Top 10% Bottom % Top 10% of population Remaining 90% Middle % Wealth Distribution by % of population ____ Which diagram A or B best illustrates the socio-economic class structure that emerged in the South as a result of its plantation economy?

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19 Characteristics of the Southern economy in mid 1800s 1.Mostly agriculture 2.Power was in the “lower South” = large plantations 3.“Cotton Is King!” * 1860  5 mil. bales a yr. (57% of total US exports). 4.Very little industry 5.Very basic system. 6.Poor transportation system.

20 Graniteville Textile Co. Founded in 1845, it was the South’s first attempt at industrialization in Richmond, VA

21 Slaves Picking Cotton on a Mississippi Plantation

22 Slaves Using the Cotton Gin

23 “Hauling the Whole Week’s Pickings” William Henry Brown, 1842

24 Slaves Working in a Sugar-Boiling House, 1823

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26 Southern Slavery was unique in the world J 1780s: 1 st antislavery society created in Phila. J By 1804: slavery eliminated from last northern state. J 1807: the legal termination of the slave trade, enforced by the Royal Navy. J 1820s: newly indep. Republics of Central & So. America declared their slaves free. J 1833: slavery abolished throughout the British Empire. J 1844: slavery abolished in the French. colonies. J 1861: the serfs of Russia were emancipated.

27 Slave Auction Notice, 1823

28 Slave Auction: Charleston, SC-1856

29 Slave Master Brands Slave Devices Slave muzzle

30 Slave tag, SC Slave Devices Slave leg irons Slave shoes

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33 Anti-Slave Pamphlet

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35 A Real Georgia Plantation

36 Slaves posing in front of their cabin on a Southern plantation.

37 Tara – Plantation Reality or Myth? Hollywood’s Version?

38 The Southern “Belle”

39 Scarlet and Mammie (Hollywood Again!)

40 A Real Mammie & Her Charge

41 A Slave Family

42 The Ledger of John White J Matilda Selby, 9, $ sold to Mr. Covington, St. Louis, $ J Brooks Selby, 19, $ Left at Home – Crazy J Fred McAfee, 22, $ Sold to Pepidal, Donaldsonville, $ J Howard Barnett, 25, $ Ranaway. Sold out of jail, $ J Harriett Barnett, 17, $ Sold to Davenport and Jones, Lafourche, $900.00

43 US Laws Regarding Slavery 1.U. S. Constitution: * 3/5s compromise [I.2] * fugitive slave clause [IV.2]  Fugitive Slave Act  stronger Fugitive Slave Act.

44 Slavery was difficult to control in the U.S. J High cost of keeping slaves from escaping. J GOAL  raise the cost of escape u Slave patrols. u Southern Black Codes. u Cut off a toe or a foot.

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46 Slave Resistance 1.“SAMBO” pattern of behavior used as a charade in front of whites [the innocent, laughing black man caricature – bulging eyes, thick lips, big smile, etc.].

47 Slave Resistance 2.Refusal to work hard. 3.Isolated acts of sabotage.

48 Slave Resistance 4. Escape via the Underground Railroad.

49 Runaway Slave Ads

50 Quilt Patterns as Secret Messages The Monkey Wrench pattern, on the left, alerted escapees to gather up tools and prepare to flee; the Drunkard Path design, on the right, warned escapees not to follow a straight route.

51 Slave Rebellions Throughout the Americas

52 Slave Rebellions in the Antebellum South 1822 Gabriel Prosser 1800

53 Slave Rebellions in the South: Nat Turner, 1831

54 Nat Turner’s Rebellion Nat Turner & 70 followers killed 55 whites in Virginia Turner & followers captured and put to death aftermath resulted white southerners killing over 200 blacks harsh laws were passed restricting slaves & free blacks anti-slavery ideas (abolition) were suppressed

55 The Slave Culture 1.Black Christianity [Baptists or Methodists]: * more emotional worship services. * negro spirituals. 2.“Pidgin” languages. 3.Nuclear family with extended kin links, where possible. 4.Importance of music in their lives. [spirituals].

56 Southern Pro-Slavery Propaganda

57 View “America, the Story of Us” clip “Division” begin at ~ 15:00 min.


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