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1 Racism Lecture Overheads Carolyn R. Fallahi, Ph. D. Psy 430.

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1 1 Racism Lecture Overheads Carolyn R. Fallahi, Ph. D. Psy 430

2 2 Are you a racist?  Overcoming our Racism by Derald Sue The unintentional racist Statistics … White Euro-American males  33% of the population  Occupy most of the upper level jobs

3 3 What is racism?  Social psychology helps us answer this question.  Prejudice (Gordon Allport) – a bias expressed through negative or positive opinions, beliefs, or feelings towards individuals who belong to a certain group or fit into a certain category.

4 4 The three components of racism  Negative in nature  Based on faulty data  Belief that all members possess the same traits.  Examples

5 5 Stereotypes  How do stereotypes work?  Why do you have stereotypes?

6 6 History: Even the Rat was White  Belief: All human beings were originally white. Blackness of Africans = degeneration of mankind Religion Philosophical and scientific views The Noble Savage View

7 7 The History of Racism  John Duckitt (1992)  Prior to the 1920s – the inferiority of minorities and the superiority of Whites.  1920s and 1930s – empirical data. Intellectual inferiority?  1930s and 1940s – Psychodynamic explanation.  1950s – The prejudiced personality.

8 8 History of Racism  1960s and 1970s – sociocultural perspective Normative approach  Social conformity  Consensus model of race relations  The idea of racial integration  Ignorance of the role of conflict, power, and domination.

9 9 History of Racism  1980s – Ingroup versus outgroup  Contemporary view

10 10 The role of psychology  The role of psychology in perpetuating racism Anthropometry 1925 Howard University professors Locke, Just, & Herskovits  The beliefs of psychologists The role of measurement. Conclusions? Racial superiority and inferiority 19 th Century = the golden age of racism

11 11 The role of psychology  1973 Henry Garrett, past APA president Argued against racial integration Argument: “black man’s brain on the average is smaller … less fissured and less complex than the white brain.”

12 12 The issue of IQ  What is IQ?  William Stern wrote, “The IQ may be regarded only as a first approximation; it takes on significant value only when the bare quantitative statement is completed by a qualitative diagnosis. To base any pedagogical estimate upon the IQ alone for practical purposes (e.g. assignment to opportunity classes) is indefensible.”

13 13 Lewis Terman  Terman, a highly respected IQ researcher, contributed to the tone of the day in his writing: “Mental retardation represents the level of intelligence which is very, very common among Spanish-Indians and Mexican families of the southwest and also among negroes.”

14 14 Issues with Terman  Terman’s revised scales – English  The Sample used was problematic.

15 15 Derald Sue: Are you a racist?  Historically – racism was overt.  Now … racism has gone underground

16 16 Is racism alive and well?  Are minorities just oversensitive?  Why should we adopt a multicultural point of reference?  Should we talk about race issues openly?  Hey….this ain’t very pleasant!

17 17 Awareness.. The first step  Most people are just not aware.  Deny prejudiced attitudes yet…..  Who is in charge of our government? Our schools? Our companies?  Between 2030 and 2050 racial/ethnic minorities will become the numerical majority.

18 18 What is Racism?  Gordon Allport A bias expressed through negative or positive opinions, beliefs, or feelings towards individuals who belong to a certain group or fit a certain category. Racial prejudice has 3 major components: it is negative in nature; based on faulty or unsubstantiated data; and is rooted in an inflexible generalization.

19 19 What are stereotypes?  Rigid and inaccurate preconceived notions that you hold about all the people who are members of a particular group.

20 20 The goal of stereotypes  Categorization  Makes us feel good about ourselves  Why so harmful? Cultural genocide  Shouldn’t they just “act more like us”?  The truth of the matter … acculturation not a good thing. Study … multiracial persons have a tendency to self-identify with only one race.

21 21 Overcoming Racism  Do you oppress?  Modern or contemporary racism Unconscious – unintentional racist versus the conscious-deliberate racist. Examples of unconscious-unintentional racists Dovidio studies Even if you try really hard not to be a racist, why are you still one?

22 22 The role of social conditioning  Sue: it is impossible for any of us not to have negative associations towards people of color because they are so deeply ingrained in us that they are outside our conscious awareness and occur almost automatically.

23 23 Can unintentional bias really harm?  Surely if I don’t mean to be prejudice, what harm can I cause? The candid camera study Another Dovidio study

24 24 Additional principles of modern racism  Modern racism is more likely to be revealed through your failure to help rather than a conscious desire to hurt.  You can justify biased behaviors to maintain the illusion that you are unbiased.  Unintentional bias can still result in significant harm.

25 25 Some thoughts  Ethnocentrism  The myth of the melting pot  Oppression: the persecution or subjugation of individuals or groups by unjust use of force or authority.  Identity development – minorities come to believe the stereotypes.

26 26 The Stereotype threat (Steele)  Stigma held  Why? Apprehension Protective disidentification What do the studies have to say? Hanna, Talley & Guindon study – our role in oppression – all of us engage in secondary oppression

27 27 Blaming the victim  Rape victim  Thomas Parham: An analysis of the oppressed or the victim analysis  Whites look very little at the factors that create injustice.

28 28 Vocabulary  What is ethnocentric monoculturalism?  Racism is caused by: Belief in superiority Belief in inferiority of others Power to impose standards Manifestations in institutions in our society – Psychologist James Jones The invisible veil

29 29 How does one change?  Can you develop a nonracist white identity? Janet Helms The phases on the path to being a nonracist  Naiete  Conformity  Dissonance  Resistance and immersion  Introspection  Integrative awareness  Commitment to antiracist action

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