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Chapter 7 Valuing Work Force Diversity
Learning Objectives After studying Chapter 7, you will be able to: © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.7–2 Define primary and secondary dimensions of diversity. Explain how prejudiced attitudes are formed. Develop an awareness of the various forms of discrimination in the workplace. Understand why organizations are striving to develop organizational cultures that value diversity. Identify ways in which individuals and organizations can enhance work force diversity. Explain the current status of affirmative action programs.
Work Force Diversity: An Introduction American work force is becoming more racially and ethnically diverse, increasingly female and older Focus today is on valuing diversity by appreciating everyone’s uniqueness, respecting differences, and encouraging every worker to make his or her full contribution to the organization © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.7–3
© 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.7–4 FIGURE 7.1Primary and Secondary Dimensions of Diversity
Prejudiced Attitudes Prejudice –Is a premature judgment or opinion formed without examination of facts –Is often based on primary or secondary dimensions –Causes people to think in terms of stereotypes What is a stereotype? © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.7–5
Prejudiced Attitudes Most common and powerful stereotypes focus on observable attributes: –Age –Gender –Ethnicity Stereotypes change when we learn more about specific members of a group © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.7–6
Sources of Prejudicial Attitudes Childhood Experiences –Children learn attitudes and beliefs from family, friends, and other authority figures Ethnocentrism –Is the tendency to regard our own culture or nation as better or more correct than others Economic Factors –Prejudice increases when the economy is in a recession or depression causing housing, jobs, and other necessities to become scarce © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.7–7
© 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.7–8 How Prejudicial Attitudes Are Formed and Retained Sources of Prejudicial Attitudes Economic Factors Childhood Experiences Unconscious Prejudices EthnocentrismEthnocentrism
Sources of Prejudicial Attitudes Unconscious Prejudices –Persons may unknowingly absorb implicit biases from their culture over their lifetime How can we change unconscious prejudices? © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.7–9
The Many Forms of Discrimination Discrimination –Is behavior based on prejudiced attitudes –Denies equal treatment and opportunities to people not in the dominant group –Can occur in many forms © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.7–10
© 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.7–11 The Many Forms of Discrimination Gender –Women and men are pursuing new roles and challenging traditional stereotypes Age –People are living and working longer, spurring a rethinking of the concept of age –Age bias, however, is still pervasive How are workers, younger and older, discriminated against?
© 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.7–12 The Many Forms of Discrimination Race –Denotes a category of people perceived as distinctive on the basis of biologically inherited traits –Is not scientifically defensible –Is “real” socially, politically, and psychologically What is ethnicity? Is there a relationship between ethnicity and race?
The Many Forms of Discrimination Religion –Religious discrimination has been an issue throughout history Disability –Mentally and physically challenged persons are protected by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1991 –Some employers are still unwilling or unable to make reasonable accommodations © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.7–13
The Many Forms of Discrimination Sexual Orientation –No federal law forbids workplace discrimination against sexual orientation –Employers have established policies and city and state governments enacted laws Subtle Forms of Discrimination –No legal protection for subtle discrimination What are examples of subtle discrimination? © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.7–14
© 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.7–15 TABLE 7.1ENABLING THOSE WITH DISABILITIES
If You Are Discriminated Against… You Can: –Decide if you want to stay with the organization –Determine whether the “difference” is something you can change –Address the “difference” directly if you cannot or will not change it –Review assertiveness skills –Compensate by excelling © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.7–16
The Economics of Valuing Diversity Valuing diversity means that an organization intends to make full use of all employees –Talents –Ideas –Experiences –Perspectives Is valuing diversity ignoring differences? Does valuing diversity involve treating everyone the same? © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.7–17
The Economics of Valuing Diversity Valuing diversity can reduce the negative effects of discrimination such as: –Turnover –Absenteeism –Low productivity Valuing diversity can give businesses a competitive advantage How does valuing diversity contribute to competitive advantage? © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.7–18
Managing Diversity –Is the process of creating an organizational culture that respects primary and secondary dimensions of diversity As the workforce becomes more diverse, managing becomes more challenging © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.7–19
Managing Diversity Individuals may be unable to eliminate deeply-held prejudices, but they can: –Learn to change negative attitudes and behaviors –Learn to look critically and honestly at myths and preconceived ideas –Develop a sensitivity to differences –Develop a comprehensive diversity awareness program © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.7–20
© 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.7–21 FIGURE 7.2 Three Pillars of Diversity What do each of the three pillars entail?
Sex Gender Racial or ethnic origin Religion Age Disability Sexual orientation Military experience Marital status Pregnancy Protected Classes Under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, individuals are protected from discrimination on the following bases: © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.7–22
© 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.7–23 Legislation for Protected Classes Age Discrimination in Employment Act Vietnam Era Veterans Readjustment Assistance Act Pregnancy Discrimination Act Americans with Disabilities Act Civil Rights Act of 1991
© 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.7–24 Affirmative Action: Yesterday and Today Affirmative Action –Involves intentionally seeking and preferential treatment in hiring and other employment matters related to protected groups that are under-represented in the organization due to past discrimination
The Affirmative Action Debate Is it time to rethink affirmative action (AA)? –Common arguments against AA: Preferences are discriminatory Preferences do not make sense, given changing demographics Socioeconomic status is a better indicator of need What are your beliefs regarding affirmative action? © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.7–25
KEY TERMS © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.7–26 valuing diversity primary dimensions secondary dimensions prejudice stereotypes ethnocentrism ethnicity discrimination race managing diversity affirmative action
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