3Things you will need to know: A huge country, Canada has a wide variety of physical features, including rugged mountains, plains, and swamps.Because of its northerly location, Canada is dominated by cold climates.Canada is rich in natural resources like fish, minerals, fertile soil, and forests.
4Physical Features Canada and the U.S. share many physical features. The mountains along the Pacific coast and the Rocky Mountains extend north into western Canada.Broad plains stretch across the interiors of both countries.Both countries border the St. Lawrence River, which links the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean.The Niagara Falls, located between Ontario and New York State, plunge an average of 162 feet between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario.
5Physical features cont… Canada is the second-largest country in the world.Canada has a region of rocky uplands, lakes, and swamps called the Canadian Shield, which covers about half the country.Canadian land bordering the Arctic Ocean is covered with ice year-round. Very few people live here, but some wildlife have adapted to the harsh environment.
6Domination by cold climates Canada’s location greatly influences the country’s climate.Located far from the equatorCool to freezing temperatures year-roundThe farther north, the colder the climate.Much of central and northern Canada has a sub-arctic climate.The far north has tundra and ice cap climates.About half of Canada lies in these extremely cold climates.Central and eastern southern Canada is humid and relatively mild.The coast of British Columbia is the mildest. The Pacific coast brings rainy winters and mild temperatures.Inland southern Canada is colder and drier.
7ResourcesCanada’s Atlantic and Pacific coastal waters are among the world’s richest fishing areas.Grand BanksOff the Atlantic coastCold waters from the Labrador Sea meet the warm waters of the Gulf Stream.Ideal for the growth of tiny organisms, or planktonLarge schools of fish gather to eat the plankton.Recent over-fishing
8Minerals The Canadian Shield has many mineral deposits. World’s main source of nickel, zinc, and uraniumOther resources: lead, copper, gold, and silverSaskatchewan: potash, a mineral used to make fertilizerAlberta: oil and natural gas
9ForestVast areas of forests from Labrador to the Pacific coast provide lumber and pulp.Pulp—softened wood fibers—is used to make paper.The United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan get much of their newsprint from Canada.Newsprint is cheap paper used mainly for newspapers.