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 Much of Canada has a cold climate. Most Canadians (more than 75%) have settled where the temperatures are comfortable and natural resources are available.

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Presentation on theme: " Much of Canada has a cold climate. Most Canadians (more than 75%) have settled where the temperatures are comfortable and natural resources are available."— Presentation transcript:


2  Much of Canada has a cold climate. Most Canadians (more than 75%) have settled where the temperatures are comfortable and natural resources are available to make a good living. So, Canadians are living in cities and towns in the southernmost parts of Canada.  In the western Pacific Mountain region, the climate varies from snow and ice in the mountains to mild, rainy weather along the coast. It’s warm enough to grow crops on the western plains where you’ll find rolling plains and rich farmland.  Rocky land around the Canadian Shield is not fit for farming but contains mineral deposits. Mining is an important occupation here.  The Great Lakes/St. Lawrence River Lowlands is the most densely populated part of Canada. People live there because of the fertile land, temperate climate, and large cities like Montreal, and Toronto.  Fishermen tend to make a living along both coastlines.  Eskimos (the Inuit) are the few inhabitants of the frigid northern Arctic territories and islands.

3 1. southern 2. farmland 3. Mineral 4. Montreal and Toronto 5. fertile land, temperature/climate, large cities (close to many resources)

4  Canada’s trade is impacted by its location, climate, and natural resources.  Fishing is a very important industry on both coasts.  Massive forests stretch across Canada providing lumber and pulp for making paper and paper products.  Wheat is grown on the western, rolling plains, and Canada is one of the world’s producers of wheat and wheat products. Oil and natural gas can also be found along the western plains area.  The Canadian Shield provides the world with various minerals such as: nickel, copper, gold, silver, zinc, and uranium.  About 70% of Canada’s manufactured goods are produced in the Great Lakes region where the lakes, rivers, and St. Lawrence Seaway are used to transport goods to other countries.  The United States is Canada’s major trading due to it close proximity and shared waterways.  Most of Canada’s imports come from the U.S., and most of its exports go to the U.S.

5 1. fishing 2. forests 3. wheat 4. nickel, copper, gold, silver, zinc, and uranium 5. St. Lawrence Seaway 6. U.S. (& Mexico) “ Although Canada is a massive country, most Canadians live within 200 miles of the United States border.”

6 a. brings goods from Canada to U.S. and U.S. to Canada b. moves goods from Great Lakes region out to the Atlantic Ocean to be shipped around the world


8  One of Canada’s major environmental issues deals with pollution coming from acid rain.  Produced by gases released in into the air by the burning of fossil fuels such as coal and oil and then mixing with rain as it falls. Canada’s acid rain problem mainly stems from power plants’ emissions from burning coal, factories that process minerals mined in Canada, and from U.S. and Canadian vehicles’ emissions.  It is a serious problem in Ontario and Quebec where the bedrock, water, and soil don’t have the ability to neutralize the acid. The acid seeps into the ground and poisons forests, soil, and lakes.  Effects include:  Polluted farmland  Dying trees  Dead plants and fish in lakes and rivers  Damage to buildings and structures  Lower profits for fishing, forestry, and agricultural industries

9  The Great Lakes have faced with serious pollution problems.  Along with acid rain, the Great Lakes have been polluted from waste from industries, sewage treatment plants, and runoff containing pesticides, fertilizers, and oil, grease, and salt from the highways.  They are critically important to Canada and the U.S. The governments of both countries have come together to create an agency to help clean up the pollution and reduce acid rain. They regulate industries, replace coal- burning power plants with cleaner gas-burning ones, and add lime to lakes, rivers, and soil to try to neutralize the effects of the acid.

10  trees dying  lakes polluted  lower profits in vital industries  polluted farmland  dead plants and fish 2. emissions from factories that process minerals and power plants that burn coal and vehicles 3. wastes from industries, sewage treatment plants, and runoff with pollutants in it

11  Minerals, water, and forests are 3 natural resources found on and important to the Canadian Shield. Since the extraction and use of these natural resources can cause environmental problems, Canada is working to balance positive economic growth with environmental concerns and conservation.  Minerals are valuable exports and help fuel many of the country’s industries. Mining can cause great damage to the environment such as toxic waste seeping into the ground and water sources, habitat loss, and processing plants causing acid rain.  Rivers are used to produce hydroelectricity. Canada is the largest producer of hydroelectric power in the world! But it causes problems due the creation of dams, reservoirs, changes to river flow. Problems include habitat loss, shoreline erosion, changes to natural aquatic food chains, and flooding to land.  Trees are harvested to make wood and paper products. Environmental groups worry about the use of clearcutting. New trees can be planted, but it takes decades to repair the damage. Clearcutting can lead to flooding and eutrophication (a process where nutrient-rich soil moves into rivers, which leads to excessive plant growth and less oxygen for the fish).  To help solve these problems, the Canadian government has implemented plans to monitor the environment more closely, restore damaged areas, and set aside protected land in parks and reserves.

12 Minerals: Uses: exports; fuel for industries Env. Concerns: mining wastes seep into ground and water (pollution); processing plant emissions can cause acid rain Water Uses: hydroelectricity Env. Concerns: dams causes flow of rivers to change which can lead to habitat loss, shoreline erosion, changes to food chains, and flooding of farmland Trees Uses: wood and paper products Env. Concerns: clear cutting, habitat loss, flooding, eutrophication*

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