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© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1: Basic Concepts The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Defining Geography Word coined by Eratosthenes –Geo = Earth –Graphia = writing Geography thus means “earth writing”
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Contemporary Geography Geographers ask where and why –Location and distribution are important terms Geographers are concerned with the tension between globalization and local diversity A division: physical geography and human geography
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Geography’s Vocabulary Place: unique location or position on Earth Region: combination of cultural/ physical features Scale: portion of the Earth compare to the whole Space: gap between two objects Connections: relationship btw people/objects
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Maps Two purposes –As reference tools To find locations, to find one’s way –As communications tools To show the distribution of human and physical features
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Early Map Making Above: oldest map (Turkey) 7 th century BC Below: Babylon (Iraq) 6 th Century BC Figure 1-2
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Maps: Scale Types of map scale –Ratio or fraction: numerical ration btw distances on Earth’s surface 1:100 –Written: written word form of ratio –Graphic: bar line to show distance Projection –Distortion: 4 types Shape: appears more elongated Distance: distance, more or less Relative size: altered size Direction: distorted
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1-4 Map Scale 1) Washington State 1:10,000,000 (1 in = 10,000,000 inches or 158 miles) 2) Western Washington 1:1,000,000 3) Seattle 1:100,000 4) Downtown Seattle 1:10,000 As the area covered gets smaller, the maps get more detailed. 1 in represents smaller distances
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 2 Types of Uninterrupted Maps Robinson Map: shape distortion/ more ocean Mercator Map: accurate shape/ distorted poles
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. U.S. Land Ordinance of 1785 Township and range system –Township = 6 sq. miles on each side North–south lines = principal meridians East–west lines = base lines –Township: T1 (distance north or south on a particular baseline –Range: R1 (distance east or west on a particular meridian line –Sections: each township is divided into 36 sections, each of which is 1 mile by 1 mile.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Township and Range System TL: north-south lines = meridian lines (red lines). East-west lines = base lines (green lines). TR: West 6x6 miles/ East 6x6 (then divided into 36 1x1 mile subsections BL: scale of 1:24,000 or 1 inch = 24,000 inches (2,000 ft) Figure 1-5
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Contemporary Tools Geographic Information Science (GIScience) –Global Positioning Systems (GPS) –Remote sensing –Geographic information systems (GIS) fig 1-7 Figure 1-7
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. A Mash-up Figure 1-8 https://developers.google.com/maps/
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. END of Key Issue 1 How Do Geographers Describe Where Things Are?
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Key Issue 2 Why is Each Point on Earth Unique? pg
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Place: Unique Location of a Feature Location: 4 ways to identify –Place names Toponym: –Site: the physical characteristics of a place –Situation: location of a place relative to other places (helps locate a location) –Mathematical location:
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Place: Mathematical Location Location of any place can be described precisely by a numbering system –Meridians (lines of longitude) 74W Prime meridian (Greenwich, England) –Parallels (lines of latitude) 41N The equator
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The Cultural Landscape A unique combination of social relationships and physical processes Each region = a distinctive landscape People/Culture = the most important agents of change to Earth’s surface
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Types of Regions Region can apply to any area larger than a point but smaller than the planet. Regional Studies: approach to geography that emphasizes the relationship among social and physical phenomena in a particular study.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Types of Regions Formal (uniform) regions –Example: Florida or Red vs Blue state. Functional (nodal or focal point) regions –Example: the circulation area of a newspaper Vernacular (cultural) regions rather than a scientific model –Example: the American South
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Vernacular Region by Mental Mapping American South Middle East South America Miami Florida State University Hawaii Weston
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Spatial Association Spatial distribution of a region can be constructed to encompass an area of widely varying scale. i.e. – cancer rates vary according to cultural, economic, and environmental factors
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Culture Origin from the Latin cultus, meaning “to care for”. Body of customary beliefs, material traits, and social forms that distinguish a group. Two aspects: –What people care about Beliefs, values, and customs Three identifying factors of culture derive from: Language, Religion, & Ethnicity. –What people take care of Earning a living; obtaining food, clothing, and shelter -
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Cultural Ecology The geographic study of human–environment relationships Two perspectives: –Environmental determinism: –Possibilism Modern geographers generally reject environmental determinism in favor of possibilism because humans have the ability to adjust to their environment/ resources Determined by a group’s values Crop selection determine by environment Vegetarian vs Non- vegetarian Cremation versus burial
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Physical Processes determined by human activity/ 4 types Climate: Tropics, Dry, Warm, Cold, Polar Vegetation: Forest, Savanna, Grassland Desert Soil: 12,000 soil types Landforms: flat to mountainous
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Modifying the Environment Examples –The Netherlands Polders: creating land by drainage –The Florida Everglades –Not so sensitive environmental modification/ unintended environmental/social consequences Figure 1-21
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Key Issue 2 Why Is Each Point on Earth Unique? Pg
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Scale Globalization –Economic globalization Transnational corporations –Cultural globalization A global culture?
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Space: Distribution of Features Distribution—three features –Density Arithmetic Physiological Agricultural –Concentration –Pattern
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Space–Time Compression Figure 1-29
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Spatial Interaction Transportation networks Electronic communications and the “death” of geography? Distance decay Figure 1-30
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Diffusion The process by which a characteristic spreads across space and over time Hearth = source area for innovations Two types of diffusion –Relocation –Expansion Three types: hierarchical, contagious, stimulus
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Relocation Diffusion: Example Figure 1-31
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The End. Up next: Population
Chapter 1 Key Issue 2: Why is Each Point on Earth Unique?
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