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© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1: Basic Concepts The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Defining Geography Word coined by Eratosthenes –Geo = Earth –Graphia = writing Geography thus means “earth writing”
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Contemporary Geography Geographers ask where and why –Location and distribution are important terms Geographers are concerned with the tension between globalization and local diversity A division: physical geography and human geography
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Geography’s Vocabulary Place: unique location or position on Earth Region: combination of cultural/ physical features Scale: portion of the Earth compare to the whole Space: gap between two objects Connections: relationship btw people/objects
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Maps Two purposes –As reference tools To find locations, to find one’s way –As communications tools To show the distribution of human and physical features
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Early Map Making Above: oldest map (Turkey) 7 th century BC Below: Babylon (Iraq) 6 th Century BC Figure 1-2
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Maps: Scale Types of map scale –Ratio or fraction: numerical ration btw distances on Earth’s surface 1:100 –Written: written word form of ratio –Graphic: bar line to show distance Projection –Distortion: 4 types Shape: appears more elongated Distance: distance, more or less Relative size: altered size Direction: distorted
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1-4 Map Scale 1) Washington State 1:10,000,000 (1 in = 10,000,000 inches or 158 miles) 2) Western Washington 1:1,000,000 3) Seattle 1:100,000 4) Downtown Seattle 1:10,000 As the area covered gets smaller, the maps get more detailed. 1 in represents smaller distances
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 2 Types of Uninterrupted Maps Robinson Map: shape distortion/ more ocean Mercator Map: accurate shape/ distorted poles
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. U.S. Land Ordinance of 1785 Township and range system –Township = 6 sq. miles on each side North–south lines = principal meridians East–west lines = base lines –Township: T1 (distance north or south on a particular baseline –Range: R1 (distance east or west on a particular meridian line –Sections: each township is divided into 36 sections, each of which is 1 mile by 1 mile.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Township and Range System TL: north-south lines = meridian lines (red lines). East-west lines = base lines (green lines). TR: West 6x6 miles/ East 6x6 (then divided into 36 1x1 mile subsections BL: scale of 1:24,000 or 1 inch = 24,000 inches (2,000 ft) Figure 1-5
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Contemporary Tools Geographic Information Science (GIScience) –Global Positioning Systems (GPS) –Remote sensing –Geographic information systems (GIS) fig 1-7 Figure 1-7
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. A Mash-up Figure 1-8 https://developers.google.com/maps/
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. END of Key Issue 1 How Do Geographers Describe Where Things Are?
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Key Issue 2 Why is Each Point on Earth Unique? pg13 - 28
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Place: Unique Location of a Feature Location: 4 ways to identify –Place names Toponym: –Site: the physical characteristics of a place –Situation: location of a place relative to other places (helps locate a location) –Mathematical location:
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Place: Mathematical Location Location of any place can be described precisely by a numbering system –Meridians (lines of longitude) 74W Prime meridian (Greenwich, England) –Parallels (lines of latitude) 41N The equator
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The Cultural Landscape A unique combination of social relationships and physical processes Each region = a distinctive landscape People/Culture = the most important agents of change to Earth’s surface
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Types of Regions Region can apply to any area larger than a point but smaller than the planet. Regional Studies: approach to geography that emphasizes the relationship among social and physical phenomena in a particular study.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Types of Regions Formal (uniform) regions –Example: Florida or Red vs Blue state. Functional (nodal or focal point) regions –Example: the circulation area of a newspaper Vernacular (cultural) regions rather than a scientific model –Example: the American South
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Vernacular Region by Mental Mapping American South Middle East South America Miami Florida State University Hawaii Weston
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Spatial Association Spatial distribution of a region can be constructed to encompass an area of widely varying scale. i.e. – cancer rates vary according to cultural, economic, and environmental factors
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Culture Origin from the Latin cultus, meaning “to care for”. Body of customary beliefs, material traits, and social forms that distinguish a group. Two aspects: –What people care about Beliefs, values, and customs Three identifying factors of culture derive from: Language, Religion, & Ethnicity. –What people take care of Earning a living; obtaining food, clothing, and shelter -
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Cultural Ecology The geographic study of human–environment relationships Two perspectives: –Environmental determinism: –Possibilism Modern geographers generally reject environmental determinism in favor of possibilism because humans have the ability to adjust to their environment/ resources Determined by a group’s values Crop selection determine by environment Vegetarian vs Non- vegetarian Cremation versus burial
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Physical Processes determined by human activity/ 4 types Climate: Tropics, Dry, Warm, Cold, Polar Vegetation: Forest, Savanna, Grassland Desert Soil: 12,000 soil types Landforms: flat to mountainous
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Modifying the Environment Examples –The Netherlands Polders: creating land by drainage –The Florida Everglades –Not so sensitive environmental modification/ unintended environmental/social consequences Figure 1-21
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Key Issue 2 Why Is Each Point on Earth Unique? Pg 13 - 28
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Scale Globalization –Economic globalization Transnational corporations –Cultural globalization A global culture?
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Space: Distribution of Features Distribution—three features –Density Arithmetic Physiological Agricultural –Concentration –Pattern
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Space–Time Compression Figure 1-29
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Spatial Interaction Transportation networks Electronic communications and the “death” of geography? Distance decay Figure 1-30
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Diffusion The process by which a characteristic spreads across space and over time Hearth = source area for innovations Two types of diffusion –Relocation –Expansion Three types: hierarchical, contagious, stimulus
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Relocation Diffusion: Example Figure 1-31
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The End. Up next: Population
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1: Basic Concepts The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography.
Chapter 1: Basic Concepts The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1: Basic Concepts The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography Key Issue 2: Why Is Each Point on Earth.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1: Basic Concepts The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography Key Issue 1: How Do Geographers Describe.
Unit One Key Issue #2. How do we make these maps? GIS (Geographic Information Systems) Remote Sensing – uses satellites or planes to take still pictures.
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Thinking Geographically 4 types of maps 5 themes of geography 3 types of regions Site vs. Situation.
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What is a Region? A region is an area with one or more common features that make it different from surrounding areas.
INTRODUCTION Thinking Geographically An Introduction to Human Geography The Cultural Landscape.
Geographic inquiry focuses on the spatial: - the spatial arrangement of places and phenomena (human and physical). - how are things organized on Earth?
Chapter 1 Thinking Geographically An Introduction to Human Geography The Cultural Landscape, 9e James M. Rubenstein Victoria Alapo, Instructor Geog 1050.
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Chapter 1. Key Issue 2 Why is Each Point on Earth Unique Place: unique location of a feature Regions: Areas of unique characteristics.
Chapter 1 Key Issue 2: Why is Each Point on Earth Unique?
Chapter One Thinking Geographically. Cultural Landscape Main thing human geographers are concerned with Visible imprint of human activity on the landscape.
Why Is Each Point on Earth Unique. Location Place Names Site Situation Mathematic Location.
By what two factors do geographers observe that people are being pulled in opposite directions? factors. A. latitude and longitude B. government and religion.
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GEOGRAPHY BASICS Location/Maps/ Regions/Geography Terms.
Hearth The region from which innovative ideas originate Example: Early cultural hearths 1.Nile River 2.Indus River 3.Wei-Huang Valley 4.Ganges River Valley.
CHAPTER 1-THINKING GEOGRAPHICALLY Geography is the scientific study of the location of people and activities, and reasons for their distribution.
Geography Earth To write The study of where and why human activities are located where they are (i.e. religions, businesses, and cities) The study of.
Why is each point on Earth Unique?. Why Is Each Point on Earth Unique? A place is a specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular characteristic.
Five Themes of Geography (Mr. Help) Movement Region Human- environment interaction Location Place.
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© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. MAPS … Then and Now.
Chapter 1 Thinking Geographically. An in-depth Social Science Many people have misconceptions about geography and think of the discipline as simply.
THINKING GEOGRAPHICALLY Chapter 1. Key Issue 1Map Scale 3 types of scale: Fractional/Ratio-1/24,000 or 1:24,000 means 1 inch on the map represents 24,000.
+ Maps & Projections AP Human Geography Mrs. Lacks.
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