Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1: Basic Concepts"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 1: Basic Concepts The Cultural Landscape:An Introduction to Human Geography
2 Defining Geography Word coined by Eratosthenes Geo = Earth Graphia = writingGeography thus means “earth writing”
3 Contemporary Geography Geographers ask where and whyLocation and distribution are important termsGeographers are concerned with the tension between globalization and local diversityA division: physical geography and human geography
4 Geography’s Vocabulary Place: unique location or position on EarthRegion: combination of cultural/ physical featuresScale: portion of the Earth compare to the wholeSpace: gap between two objectsConnections: relationship btw people/objects
5 Maps Two purposes As reference tools As communications tools To find locations, to find one’s wayAs communications toolsTo show the distribution of human and physical features
6 Early Map Making Above: oldest map (Turkey) 7th century BC Below: Babylon (Iraq) 6th Century BCFigure 1-2
7 Maps: Scale Types of map scale Projection Ratio or fraction: numerical ration btw distances on Earth’s surface 1:100Written: written word form of ratioGraphic: bar line to show distanceProjectionDistortion: 4 typesShape: appears more elongatedDistance: distance, more or lessRelative size: altered sizeDirection: distorted
8 Map Scale1) Washington State 1:10,000,000 (1 in = 10,000,000 inches or 158 miles)2) Western Washington 1:1,000,0003) Seattle 1:100,0004) Downtown Seattle 1:10,000As the area covered gets smaller, the maps get more detailed. 1 in represents smaller distancesFigure 1-4
9 2 Types of Uninterrupted Maps Robinson Map: shape distortion/ more oceanMercator Map: accurate shape/ distorted poles
10 U.S. Land Ordinance of 1785 Township and range system Township = 6 sq. miles on each sideNorth–south lines = principal meridiansEast–west lines = base linesTownship: T1 (distance north or south on a particular baselineRange: R1 (distance east or west on a particular meridian lineSections: each township is divided into 36 sections, each of which is 1 mile by 1 mile.
11 Township and Range System TL: north-south lines = meridian lines (red lines). East-west lines = base lines (green lines).TR: West 6x6 miles/ East 6x6 (then divided into 36 1x1 mile subsectionsBL: scale of 1:24,000 or 1 inch = 24,000 inches (2,000 ft)Figure 1-5
12 Contemporary Tools Geographic Information Science (GIScience) Global Positioning Systems (GPS)Remote sensingGeographic information systems (GIS) fig 1-7Figure 1-7
13 Figure 1-8 https://developers.google.com/maps/ A Mash-upFigure https://developers.google.com/maps/
14 How Do Geographers Describe Where Things Are? END of Key Issue 1How Do Geographers Describe Where Things Are?
15 Why is Each Point on Earth Unique? pg13 - 28 Key Issue 2Why is Each Point on Earth Unique?pg
16 Place: Unique Location of a Feature Location: 4 ways to identifyPlace namesToponym:Site: the physical characteristics of a placeSituation: location of a place relative to other places (helps locate a location)Mathematical location:
17 Place: Mathematical Location Location of any place can be described precisely by a numbering systemMeridians (lines of longitude) 74WPrime meridian (Greenwich, England)Parallels (lines of latitude) 41NThe equator
18 The Cultural Landscape A unique combination of social relationships and physical processesEach region = a distinctive landscapePeople/Culture = the most important agents of change to Earth’s surface
19 Types of RegionsRegion can apply to any area larger than a point but smaller than the planet.Regional Studies: approach to geography that emphasizes the relationship among social and physical phenomena in a particular study.
20 Types of Regions Formal (uniform) regions Example: Florida or Red vs Blue state.Functional (nodal or focal point) regionsExample: the circulation area of a newspaperVernacular (cultural) regions rather than a scientific modelExample: the American South
21 Vernacular Region by Mental Mapping American SouthMiddle EastSouth AmericaMiamiFlorida State UniversityHawaiiWeston
22 Spatial AssociationSpatial distribution of a region can be constructed to encompass an area of widely varying scale.i.e. – cancer rates vary according to cultural, economic, and environmental factors
23 CultureOrigin from the Latin cultus, meaning “to care for”. Body of customary beliefs, material traits, and social forms that distinguish a group.Two aspects:What people care aboutBeliefs, values, and customsThree identifying factors of culture derive from: Language, Religion, & Ethnicity.What people take care ofEarning a living; obtaining food, clothing, and shelter-
24 Cultural EcologyThe geographic study of human–environment relationshipsTwo perspectives:Environmental determinism:PossibilismModern geographers generally reject environmental determinism in favor of possibilism because humans have the ability to adjust to their environment/ resourcesDetermined by a group’s valuesCrop selection determine by environmentVegetarian vs Non-vegetarianCremation versus burial
25 Physical Processes determined by human activity/ 4 types Climate: Tropics, Dry, Warm, Cold, PolarVegetation: Forest, Savanna, Grassland DesertSoil: 12,000 soil typesLandforms: flat to mountainous
26 Modifying the Environment ExamplesThe NetherlandsPolders: creating land by drainageThe Florida EvergladesNot so sensitive environmental modification/ unintended environmental/social consequencesFigure 1-21
27 Why Is Each Point on Earth Unique? Pg 13 - 28 Key Issue 2Why Is Each Point on Earth Unique? Pg
28 Scale Globalization Economic globalization Cultural globalization Transnational corporationsCultural globalizationA global culture?
29 Space: Distribution of Features Distribution—three featuresDensityArithmeticPhysiologicalAgriculturalConcentrationPattern
31 Spatial Interaction Transportation networks Electronic communications and the “death” of geography?Distance decayFigure 1-30
32 DiffusionThe process by which a characteristic spreads across space and over timeHearth = source area for innovationsTwo types of diffusionRelocationExpansionThree types: hierarchical, contagious, stimulus